Berkeley Lab Logo

Berkeley Lab Currents

October 31, 1997



Lab Science Shines During Open House

Hundreds of eager volunteers and a perfect fall day greeted an estimated 6,000-plus visitors to the Lab's second Open House, held on Saturday, Oct. 18. Guests at the six-hour event included townfolk, tourists, Lab employees and their families, and young people from kindergartners to graduate students. From grandparents to toddlers, visitors arrived by the busload or hiked up the hill for an intimate look at the sometimes mysterious-seeming goings-on at Berkeley Lab.

"A World of Great Science" was the event's title; visitors got great science and more. After examining the world's most powerful dipole magnet, manipulating images of tiny crystal structures on the Atomic Resolution Microscope, watching a phalanx of robotic gene sequencers move through their paces, or taking in any of numerous other tours, lectures, and exhibits, visitors could enjoy refreshments at the food tents and listened to live music. Music groups included Lab musicians who played rhythm and blues, jazz, rock and roll, and even performed Scottish dances on the lawn in front of the cafeteria.

Seaborg honored

Associate-Director-at-Large Glenn Seaborg was honored at a noontime ceremony in front of Bldg. 50 for his many contributions to science, culminating in the recent official designation of the element seaborgium, element 106. Director Charles Shank led the tribute, citing Seaborg's inspiration to generations of scientists, including himself. October 18 was proclaimed "Glenn Seaborg Day" in the City of Berkeley by Mayor Shirley Dean. Seaborg received trophies which ranged from the sublime--an up-to-date periodic table of the elements made of crystal and presented by the Lab--to the ridiculous: a "Flubber" baseball cap presented by the Walt Disney Company, which also gave children in the audience posters of the new movie starring Robin Williams. (Seaborgium is apparently crucial in making flubber.) Seaborg responded to it all with what Kira Thomsen-Cheek of the Open House task force describes as "dry wit."

Later Seaborg spent hours talking with young visitors and signing copies of the periodic table. "I saw him surrounded by 30 delighted kids who were craning their necks to look up at him," says Roberta Boucher, the director's liaison to the task force.

One young woman with a Seaborg-autographed table of elements later showed up at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and peppered its director, Claude Lyneis, with questions. "Boy, was she charged up," Lyneis says. "She'd made up her mind that she wanted to spend her life doing nuclear science."

According to Lyneis, the somewhat out-of-the-way 88-Inch Cyclotron got "as many people as we could deal with," and the centrally-located Advanced Light Source was mobbed. "It was a thrill dealing face-to-face with people," says Art Robinson, who was crammed into a cave explaining the storage ring's magnets to visitors "awed by this monster they were looking at. They were very enthusiastic, very curious about what we were doing here. It was hard to get people to leave."

Children had a field day

No one was more enthusiastic than the children: tearing delicate electronic hardware to pieces with screwdrivers at the "electronic petting zoo" inside the ALS; on the porch outside, oohing, ahhing, and giggling at the sight of bloated, dehydrated marshmallows; or shrieking with delight as they smashed broccoli stalks they had just immersed in liquid nitrogen to smithereens.

Children dragged their parents behind them all over the hill as they collected stamps on their passports from such locations as the Fire House, the Advanced Engineering Technology Labs' glass-blowing demonstration, or from volunteer college students, who popped questions like "Is an electron bigger or smaller than the tip of a pencil?" The youngsters' correct answers were rewarded with stamps and stickers.

Kids were everywhere--from the Science Discovery Theater in Bldg. 66, to the Family Science Tents behind Bldg. 70. "We had to struggle to fit them all in," says volunteer Marilyn Chartock. "We kept sending for more supplies."

That science can be as much fun for older kids and for adults was amply demonstrated in the National Energy Research Scientific Computing center's visualization lab, where molecular structures seemed to come right out of the screen over the heads of front-row observers--and were manipulated by some visitors to the verge of motion-sickness. A web-surfing exhibit, partly staffed by six volunteers from Silicon Graphics, Inc. and stocked with 20 terminals on loan from SGI, allowed visitors to morph a person's live, on-screen head into a pointy cable and tie it in a knot.

First Open House paved the way

"It really helped to have the Open House two years ago under our belt," says Roberta Boucher. "We put what we learned to use, with more and better signs, more parking and shuttle buses, and more hands-on exhibits." Starting at the central exhibit area, visitors found their way to every part of the Lab, from medical imaging exhibits to talks on the theory, application, and life-style of science, to tours of the waste management facility.

Boucher calls the Open House task force "an incredible group to work with--a dozen `outreach types' plus representatives from 20 divisions and programs and some 500 volunteers. We had no medical emergencies, no lost kids, and of the 220 questionnaires we handed out, more than 95 percent came back with tremendously positive responses."

Perhaps the best measure of the second Open House's success was the combined exhilaration and exhaustion on the faces of people making their way down the hill after a day spent looking close-up at Berkeley Lab's world of great science.


Photo: The Advanced Light Source was one of the biggest draws during Open House. Here, a visitor looks over the ALS displays in the welcome tent. (XBD9710-04078) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


Photo: Colety Kaltschmidt mugs for the camera as his dad, Lab photographer Roy Kaltschmidt, snaps the picture. (XBD9710-04101)


Photo: The ALS control room was a big attraction. (XBD9710-04073)


Photo: Children watch in eager anticipation as the Engineering Shop's lathe, set up at the cafeteria, carves metal trinkets for them. (XBD9710-04071)


Photo: Is it science or just plain fun? (XBD9710-04076)


Photo: Scientist-to-be enjoys the electronic petting zoo. (XBD9710-04072)


Photo: Glenn Seaborg receives a plaque from Dr. Attila Pavlath of the American Chemical Society's board of directors during an award ceremony celebrating Seaborg's lifelong contributions to science. (XBD9710-04070)




You Made it Possible

The enormous success of Berkeley Lab's second Open House was a real tribute to the hard work, enthusiasm and commitment of the hundreds of employees who volunteered their time and energy both before and during this outstanding event. Your unflinching efforts helped showcase our research facilities in the best possible light and opened the eyes of the world to the wonders of the science being conducted at our institution.

Seldom have I felt as much pride in the excellent work being done at the Lab as I did on that bright Saturday as I witnessed the joy and enthusiasm of children and adults alike as they experienced the excitement of science and discovery. Their positive experience here will eventually translate into broader public support for the Lab and for science in general.

Again, my congratulations to all of you who helped make this year's Open House such a big success.

-- Charles V. Shank, Director



Transgenic Mice May Lead to Sickle Cell Treatment

By Lynn Yarris

Genetically engineered mice that fully mimic all the symptoms of human sickle cell disease have been developed by scientists here at Berkeley Lab. With this new mouse model, medical researchers finally have a means of effectively testing experimental treatments for the disease.

A team led by Dr. Chris Pászty of the Life Sciences Division has reported the creation of a new strain of mice that carries human hemoglobin genes with no counteracting mouse genes. This enables the mice to develop all clinical manifestations of the sickle cell disease.

The research has been reported in this week's issue (Oct. 31) of the magazine Science. In addition to Pászty, other members of the team from Life Sciences included Catherine Brion, Mary Stevens, Mohandas Narla, and Edward Rubin. Also contributing were Ewa Witkowska of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute and Elizabeth Manci of the University of South Alabama Doctors Hospital.

Each year approximately 100,000 babies in the world, mostly of African descent, are born with sickle cell disease, a painful and debilitating condition caused by a mutant hemoglobin gene. Although sickle cell disease has been extensively studied, there is still no effective treatment--a failure attributed in part to the lack of an animal model that accurately reproduces the disease's symptoms.

"This work marks the end of an almost decade-long effort to create mice that faithfully model human sickle cell disease," Pászty says.

Transgenic mice containing the human sickle genes have been engineered before, but these mice developed only mild symptoms of the disease. The problem was that in addition to carrying the mutant human genes responsible for sickle cell disease, these strains also carried normal mouse genes which counteracted the defective human genes.

"Through a series of complex transgenic and gene knock-out manipulations, we were able to add the appropriate human genes as well as delete the (corresponding) mouse genes," says Pászty. "The end products are mice with irreversibly sickled red blood cells, anemia, and multi-organ pathology. In contrast to the limited studies that can be performed in humans, these animals provide an opportunity for rapidly performing a wide range of experiments. They should play an important role in furthering our understanding of sickle cell disease and in developing improved therapies for treating sickle cell patients."

Sickle cell disease was once referred to as sickle cell anemia, but the term "anemia" was dropped because it emphasized only one manifestation of the condition. Victims inherit from both their parents a gene that makes a mutant form of hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein in red blood cells which carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.

This mutant form of hemoglobin is called "hemoglobin S."

Under certain physiological stresses, such as a decrease in oxygen, the hemoglobin S protein will polymerize, forming a rigid chain that may distort a blood cell into the shape of a "sickle." Lacking the flexibility of normal disc-shaped cells, these sickled cells are unable to squeeze through capillaries. This impairs the flow of blood, reducing the body's supply of oxygen. Damage from the reduction in oxygen accumulates, causing cell death in various tissues, most notably in the kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen. This leads to organ dysfunction and ultimately results in death.

All hemoglobin is made up of two polypeptide chains--an alpha globin and a beta globin chain. Sickling occurs when a hemoglobin protein with a normal alpha globin chain and a mutant beta S globin chain precipitates out of solution during a state of deoxygenation.

Creation of the new sickle cell mouse model began about five years ago when Berkeley Lab researchers set out to engineer two new strains of knock-out mice: one which would no longer produce mouse alpha globin and one which would no longer produce mouse beta globin. At about the same time that Lab scientists created the knock-out mice which did not produce mouse alpha globin chains, a research group led by Dr. Tim Townes of the University of Alabama at Birmingham succeeded in creating knock-out mice which did not produce any mouse beta globin chains.

"Rather than duplicating each others' work we exchanged knock-out mice and then went our separate ways in terms of creating the human sickle hemoglobin transgenics," says Pászty. "It worked out well for both of our groups, because after the long process of breeding these three strains of mice together we both managed to create mice with sickle cell disease."

Townes and his collaborators also published a paper describing their sickle-cell-diseased mice in the Oct. 31 issue of Science magazine.

With experts predicting a worldwide surge in the incidence of sickle cell disease, the perfection of this mouse model is extremely timely. Mice are highly valued for medical research because their physiology is quite similar to that of humans, they are fast-breeding, and their small size makes them easy to maintain and handle in large numbers.

Development of the sickle cell mouse was funded by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and by the National Institute for Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases.


Photo: Chris Pászty holds the first mouse whose blood contains exclusively human hemoglobin. (XBD9710-04079)




Lab Detectors Measure Cosmic Rays Aboard NASA's ACE Spacecraft

By Paul Preuss

Berkeley Lab's Engineering Division has provided the heart of one of nine experiments aboard NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), a satellite launched last August to study the "composition" of outer space: the solar corona, the interplanetary and local-interstellar media, and the makeup of the galaxy itself. Cosmic rays offer one of the best ways to sample the Milky Way at high energies, and that's what CRIS--the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer--was built to do.

Designed by a consortium led by Caltech astrophysicists, CRIS consists of 60 lithium-ion-compensated silicon detectors, each three millimeters thick and 100 millimeters in diameter. The Si(Li) detectors measure the total energy of incoming cosmic ray heavy nuclei and the rate of energy loss as the nuclei come to a stop. The data is combined with input from a trajectory detector of fiber-optic planes, which sits on top of the stacks of silicon detectors, to determine the mass and atomic number of each cosmic ray nucleus. CRIS is designed to observe all the stable or long-lived nuclei up through Z=30 (zinc) in the periodic table.

"Starting with ISEE-3, the Third International Sun-Earth Explorer launched in 1978, we've built similar experiments for six of the last seven satellites of this kind," says Jack Walton of the Measurement Science Group in the division's Engineering Science Department.

Each new cosmic-ray "telescope" has presented the Measurement Science Group with greater challenges in the fabrication of instruments that have to be exquisitely crafted and at the same time rugged enough to withstand the G-forces, vibration, and temperature extremes of a launch into space. The silicon detectors of CRIS are the biggest and most sensitive yet for this kind of instrument.

"Only one company in the world, Topsil, provides the kind of crystals we need," Walton says. "It's located in the village of Frederikssund on the west coast of Denmark--a place so small that when five of us went to visit the plant, the only taxi in town had to make two trips to carry us all from the railroad station."

Yu Wong, along with Julie Lee, headed the team that fabricated the detectors; he explains that the silicon used in CRIS is doped with boron, which provides negative acceptor sites in the crystal lattice. After the wafers are sliced from a single crystal of silicon by a diamond saw, they are coated with lithium on one side; with ultrasound cutters and chemical etching, grooves are cut around the top edge of the wafer and a shallow "well" is created on the bottom.

Lithium is an "interstitial donor" to silicon; by heating the wafers to 110 degrees Celsius and applying a positive 500-volt bias, the positive lithium ions are made to drift into the bulk of the crystal, positioning themselves among the silicon atoms instead of replacing them. They pair with the negative boron acceptor sites and turn the entire wafer into what Walton calls "a big silicon diode," with a net electrical impurity concentration of merely about one part in ten trillion.

The completed detectors are measured for flatness to an accuracy of better than one micrometer, calibrated using accelerated beams of argon and rigorously tested for stability under high-vacuum conditions. The 60 finished wafers in the CRIS experiment are the survivors of more than 160 candidates virtually hand-made at Berkeley Lab.

The ACE satellite is headed for a unique orbit around a gravitationally stable libration point between the Earth and the sun that will keep it operational for at least five years. As an example of the scope and sensitivity of the CRIS experiment, it is anticipated that CRIS will collect some 100,000 iron nuclei (along with dozens of other species) during its first two years in space, enough to precisely determine the abundance of even the rarest iron isotope, iron 58, which probably accounts for only three tenths of one percent of all the iron in ACE's outer-space environment.

Berkeley Lab's Engineering Science Department staff, under the leadership of Joe Jaklevic, have become specialists in supplying detectors capable of just that kind of precision and endurance.

Progress of the ACE satellite as it races towards its planned orbit can be followed on the ACE website.


Photo: Cosmic ray nuclear-isotope detectors fashioned by the Measurement Science Group of Berkeley Lab's Engineering Department from lithium-ion-compensated silicon, Si (Li), shown packaged for delivery. (XBD9710-03980)




In the News



Lawrence Portrait Joins Historic Exhibit

Photo: Painted in 1965 by Laboratory retiree Hal Dougherty, this portrait of Berkeley Lab founder Ernest Orlando Lawrence is on display on extended loan in the Bldg. 50 lobby historic exhibit. Dougherty was recognized at Open House for the work, which he said he developed from photos and memories as a tribute to "one of the great men of science, and one of my heroes." Dougherty was a mechanical and design engineer here from 1956 to 1985; his son Jim is currently an engineering technologist at Berkeley Lab. (XBD9710-04012) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt




Lab Scientists Win Five Out of Nine DOE Materials Sciences Awards

Each year the Department of Energy's Materials Sciences Division awards three prizes in each of three categories: Materials Chemistry, Solid State Physics, and Metallurgy and Ceramics. Thirteen DOE laboratories are eligible to compete. This year, investigators in Berkeley Lab's own Materials Sciences Division (MSD) took five of the nine awards.

In Materials Chemistry, the Lab won two of the three awards. Alex Pines was cited for Outstanding Scientific Accomplishment for his development of new concepts and techniques in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), such as double rotation and dynamic-angle spinning for high-resolution imaging of solids, and the application of these novel NMR methods to a wide range of materials research problems.

Paul Alivisatos won for Sustained Outstanding Research on the distinctive properties of nanometer-scale assemblages of atoms. Alivisatos pioneered the manufacture by chemical means of quantities of millions of individual atomic clusters--assemblies ranging from 100 to 10,000 atoms in size--including such compounds as gallium arsenide and other semiconducting nanoscale crystallites.

In Solid State Physics, two of the three prizes also went to Berkeley Lab researchers. Norman Phillips, who shared the award for Outstanding Scientific Accomplishment with researchers at Argonne National Laboratory, confirmed that the transition in the presence of magnetic fields to the superconducting state in high-temperature superconductors of the cuprate type--not seen in normal superconductors--is a thermodynamic first-order transition as some theorists had speculated. Philips measured latent heat at the transition and found it to be consistent with magnetization.

Yuen-Ron Shen was recognized for Significant Implication for DOE-Related Technologies for developing a general technique for studying surfaces and interfaces by means of non-linear laser spectroscopy. So versatile is Shen's technique that it can be used not only for solid structures but for liquid and biological surfaces and interfaces, as well as for processes such as catalysis.

In Metallurgy and Ceramics, the award for Outstanding Scientific Accomplishment was won by Uli Dahmen for his discovery of the "magic size" phenomenon that occurs among nanoscale inclusions of lead embedded in a matrix of aluminum.(See Currents, Oct. 17.) Only sizes and shapes that minimize strain energy can form, which helps explain the unique properties of these inclusions (e.g., their very high melting points.)

The DOE materials sciences awards are more than a pat on the back. "The prizes are worth almost $250,000 in equipment funds for the winners," says Mark Alper, deputy head of MSD. That's material assistance indeed to the cause of materials sciences at Berkeley Lab.
-- Paul Preuss




Lab Researchers Elected AAAS Fellows

Two Berkeley Lab researchers are among the 270 newly elected Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the world's largest federation of scientists.

Bob B. Buchanan, a biochemist in the Earth Sciences Division, is professor of microbial biology at UC Berkeley. Recently his work has focused on the role of the catalytic protein thioredoxin in seed germination, with implications for producing better wheat flours. A second line of research concentrates on metal detoxification and bioremediation, with an emphasis upon removing selenium from polluted waste streams.

Marvin L. Cohen, a theoretical physicist with the Materials Sciences Division, is University Professor at UC Berkeley. One of the most cited condensed matter theorist of the last 30 years, Cohen developed the pseudopotential model of electronic structure and has applied it to predicting the properties of novel materials from first principles, including hard carbon nitride, a material harder than diamond. His current interests include the electronics of carbon-60 buckyballs and nanotubes.

The AAAS was established in 1848 and has 140,000 members. It publishes the weekly peer-reviewed journal Science. Individuals are nominated and elected Fellows for their efforts toward advancing science or fostering applications that are deemed scientifically or socially distinguished, a tradition that began in 1874.




Web Access to DOE Report Literature

The Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) has announced the launching of a new website--The DOE Information Bridge--which provides full-text access to DOE report literature. DOE employees and contractors are offered free access to bibliographic data and full text of energy-related scientific and technical research results.

The website so far includes approximately 21,000 full-text documents and 200,000 bibliographic records. OSTI plans to update the site daily with an average of 50 full text documents and several hundred bibliographic citations. In addition to DOE reports, the contents will include bibliographic citations of energy related scientific and technical information obtained through international exchange agreements, other government agencies, and other energy related sources.

The full text of about 600 Berkeley Lab formal reports, conference papers and proceedings, theses, and informational brochures submitted to the Lab's Report Coordination Office since Jan. 1996 are also available through this system.

To access the data in the Information Bridge (, users must first obtain a password. To request your password, call OSTI at 423-576-8401 or 423-576-0487, or send an e-mail to




UC Names Associate Vice Provost for Research and Laboratory Programs

Rulon K. Linford, a 24-year veteran of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and expert in fusion research, has been appointed associate vice provost for research and laboratory programs for the University of California. Linford will oversee activities related to the university's academic and programmatic relationship with three of the DOE managed laboratories -- Berkeley Lab, Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories. Currently he serves as the UC coordinator for science and technology at Los Alamos. Linford replaces Carl H. Poppe, who filled the post since its inception in 1994 until his retirement earlier this year.




Around the Lab



FY 1998 Lab Directed R&D Program Awards Announced

Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank has announced the selection of 66 projects for support by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for fiscal year 1998. A total of $8.8 million in both operating expenses and capital equipment has been allocated for LDRD out of the 145 proposals requesting a total of $23.2 million that were submitted in response to the Call for Proposals issued earlier this year. (See Currents, March 7, 1997.) The proposals were evaluated in a review process that used the scientific judgment and priorities of the division reviews and the Director's Review Committee.

Director Shank said: "The LDRD program continues to be a primary means of initial support for new, innovative ideas. The proposals for FY 1998 demonstrated a broad range of interesting scientific and technological research and development possibilities." Computational proposals form an important subset of funded proposals in all scientific divisions; a number of other projects also apply Berkeley Lab's expertise at the Advanced Light Source and in the Center for Environmental Biotechnology.

In addition to cross-divisional and/or multi-investigator projects, a number of individual investigator proposals were also funded. Some of the proposals funded were VUV/soft x-ray synchrotron research for molecular environmental science; genomic-scale gene identification approach to cell phenotype; simulation and analysis for high energy and nuclear physics; laser driven particle acceleration; studies toward a large-scale neutrino observatory; investigations in boron neutron capture therapy; regional effects on global climate changes; energy efficiency and demand in industry; and new detector applications at the 88-Inch Cyclotron.

Director Shank expressed his appreciation to all principal investigators who submitted proposals for their effort and creativity.

Principal Investigator, Research Project, Award ($K)

Donna Albertson, Judith Campisi, Genomic Approaches to Understanding Cell Genotype and Phenotype, $392

Ilham Al Mahamid, Jennie Hunter-Cevera, Effect of Biosorption on Actinide Migration in the Subsurface, $56

Adam Arkin, Stochastic Logic in Biochemical Reaction Networks: Theory & Experiment with Application to Bacterial Pathogenesis, $230

John Arnold, Network Silicates with Porphyrin Backbones: Novel Solids and Catalysis, $40

Ali Belkacem, Numerical Treatment of Pair Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions Using Parallel Processing, $75

John Bell, Alexandre Chorin, Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Swirling Boundary Layers, $120

Carolyn Bertozzi, A New Strategy for the Introduction of Biocompatible Coatings onto Material Surfaces, $95

Wes Bethel et al., Parametric Visualization and Computation of Large Geochemical Datasets, $60

Nancy Brown, Philip Collela, Michael Frenklach, High Fidelity Simulation of Diesel Combustion, $200

Elton Cairns, Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cells, $50

David Chandler, Martin Head-Gordon, William Miller, Molecular Theory Center, $208

Daniel Chemla, Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Magnetic Insulators, $50

Robert Cheng, Fundamental Research on Lean Premixed Combustion for Gas Turbine Technology, $85

Alexandre Chorin, R. Kupferman, Numerical Methods for Time-Dependent Viscoelastic Flows, $100

William Chu, Thomas Budinger, Eleanor Blakely, Physics and Biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), $110

Joan Daisey, Particulate Air Quality and Morbidity: Significance of the Chemical Composition of Particulate Matter, $40

Donald DePaolo et al., Global Climate Change: Regional Effects and Potential Consequences of Adaptation and Mitigation Measures in California, $140

Daniel Dietderich, Xiao-Dong Xiang, Combinatorial Approach to Elucidate Melt Texturing of Ag-Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d, $75

Charles Fadley et al., Development of Atomic-Resolution X-ray Fluorescence Holography for Materials Analysis, $50

Robert Glaeser, ALS Protein Microcrystal Diffraction Camera, $80

Teresa Head-Gordon, Prediction of Protein Tertiary Structure: Modeling Energy Surfaces, Global Optimization, and High Performance Computing, $100

Alan Jackson, Malcolm Howells, A Next-Generation Synchrotron Light Source, $125

Joseph Jaklevic et al., Development and Demonstration of Biological Pathogen Detectors, $140

Stephen Johnson, Michael Vella, Mini-Hid Lighting: Semiconductor Processing Technology for Energy Efficient Lighting, $100

Paul Kaufman, Analysis of DNA Damage-Sensitivity of Yeast Mutants Lacking Chromatin Assembly Proteins, $121

Jay Keasling et al., Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Growth and Spatial Organization in a Biodegradative, Mutualistic Multispecies Biofilm, $56

John Kerr et al., Understanding the Effect of Electrochemical Technologies on Intrinsic Microorganisms in Both In Situ and Ex Situ Applications, $97

Sung-Hou Kim et al., Basis Set of Protein Folding: A Foundation for Functional Genome, $178

Yoshinori Kohwi, Studies of the Expression of Trinucleotide Repeat Sequences Binding Proteins (TRIPs) in Brain with Human Neurodegenerative Diseases and in Aged Mice with Cognitive Decline, $74

Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu, Isolation and Characterization of SATB1-bound Sequences In Vivo, $80

William Kramer et al., The Integration of PDSF, HENP Analysis, and the HPSS Data Archive, $300

Dung-Hai Lee, Phosphorescent Molecule as a Probe in Near-field Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy, and the Electronic Correlation Effects on the Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, $50

Edward Lee et al., Advanced Induction Accelerators, $150

I-Yang Lee et al., Research Opportunities with 8p Array at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, $200

Wim Leemans et al., Laser Driven Acceleration of Particles, $300

Mark Levine et al., Energy Efficiency and Demand in Industry: A Global Assessment, $140

Steven Louie et al., Determining Macroscopic Materials Properties from Microscopic Calculations, $225

Kunxin Luo, Analysis of Cellular Factors that Activate Transcription from the Major TGFb Responsive Element in the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Gene, $180

Ruth Lupu, Development of Novel Biological Targeted Therapies for Breast Cancer, $160

Ravi Malladi, Accurate Segmentation of Cells with Level Set Methods, $80

C. William McCurdy, Thomas Rescigno, Electron and Photon Collisions with Molecules, Clusters, and Surfaces, $190

Dennis Moltz et al., Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, $150

George Moridis et al., Electromagnetic Methods for Fluid Emplacement and Monitoring in the Subsurface, $70

Mohandas Narla, Signal Transduction and Cytoskeleton, $180

David Nygren et al., Research and Development for a Km-Scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory in the Deep Ocean, $250

Howard Padmore et al., Development of an Aberration Corrected Photoelectron Microscope for Surface Studies, $170

Maria Pallavicini, Ronald Jensen, Gene-Specific Biomonitoring to Assess Risk of Developing Environmentally-Induced Leukemia, $32

Saul Perlmutter et al., Fabrication of Charge-Coupled Devices of a High-Resistivity Substrate for Astronomical Imaging, $100

Saul Perlmutter et al., Exploring Scientific Computational Collaboration: NERSC and the Supernova Cosmology Project, $120

Karsten Pruess, George Brimhall, Fully-Coupled Numerical Simulation of Reactive Chemical Transport in Geologic Media, $160

Peter Schultz, In Vivo Expansion of the Genetic Code, $80

Stephen Selkowitz, The Virtual Building Laboratory, $200

William Saphir, Brian Tierney, Scientific Computing on Clusters of Multiprocessor Systems (COMPS), $280

David Shuh, Neville Smith, Tetsu Tokunaga, VUV/Soft X-ray Synchrotron Radiation Research for Molecular Environmental Science, $300

James Siegrist, Performance Modeling of Pixel and Silicon Strip Detectors for High-Luminosity Experiments, $90

Horst Simon, Keshong Wu, Sparse Linear Algebra Algorithms for MPPs, $100

George Smoot, Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis, $90

William Stringfellow, Development of Mixed Waste Bioremediation: Biodegradation of Complexing Agent, Ketone, and Heavy Metal Mixtures, $100

T. James Symons et al., Representation and Analysis of High-Fold Gamma-Ray Coincidence Data, $100

Yaffa Tomkiewicz, Ka-Ngo Leung, Scanning Focused-Ion-Beam Technology for High Throughput Magnetic Head Fabrication, $150

Tamas Torok, Stanley Goldman, Environmental Genome Survey and the Use of Microarray Technology, $60

Michel Van Hove, MSD Theory and NERSC Computation for ALS Experiments, $180

Donald Vasco et al., Advanced Computing for Geophysical Inverse Problems, $130

Shimon Weiss, Steve Selvin, Deborah Charych, Molecular Rulers for the Study of Synthetic and Biological Macromolecules in Aqueous Conditions, $115

Ming Xie, Assessment of Interaction-Point (IP) Performance of e+e- Linear Collider Operating in Strong Quantum Beamstrahlung Regime, $175

Alexander Zholents et al., Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy at an ALS Beamline, $150

Total ($K): 8,834




Currents Online

The full text of each edition of Currents is published on the Lab's home page on the World Wide Web. View it at under "Research News and Publications." To set up your computer to access the World Wide Web, call the Mac and PC Support Group at X6858.




Bulletin Board



November Onsite Courses

EH&S Classes

Pre-registration is required for all courses except Introduction to Environment, Health & Safety (EHS 010). To pre-register, contact Lynellen Watson (e-mail:, fax: X5870, phone: X5999). Please include your name, employee ID number, extension, class name, date, and EH&S class code.


Oracle Channel Classes

8:45 a.m. -1 p.m. * Bldg. 936-12 * Cost: $195.00 per course



The registration deadline is on the Monday prior to the week the class is held. Before signing up, please obtain approval and account number to be charged from your supervisor. To register for a class, contact Lynellen Watson (fax: X5870, phone: X5999). Information about class content can be found on the World Wide Web (


AIM Computer Training for Windows

Bldg. 51L computer room (next to the lower level of the Bevatron)

Cost: $100 per course, except for Windows 95 Transition, which is free.



To enroll, complete the AIM enrollment form located on the Employee Development and Training's website ( and obtain your supervisor's approval; fax it to AIM at (510) 827-1614. You will receive a confirmation call within two business days.

Cancellation policy: Your division account will be charged for classes that have a fee unless you cancel five working days prior to the class you are scheduled to attend.




Commute Store Visits Lab on Thursdays

The "tripmobile," a commute store on wheels selling items such as bus and BART tickets, is continuing its weekly rounds at the Lab but on a changed schedule. Run by the Berkeley Trip store, the tripmobile camps in the cafeteria parking lot every Thursday from 12 to 12:45 p.m. For more information, call Marylynn Wilkinson at X8605.




Place Procurement Orders with the Procard

In order to speed up the process of purchasing low-value materials and off-site services, employees can now use the "procard" to place orders themselves. More details about the procard program can be obtained at an information booth to be set up in the cafeteria on Wednesday, Nov. 5, from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Literature and application materials will be available, and Procurement personnel will be on hand to answer questions. Additional information can be found on the Procurement website (http://purch1., by sending e-mail to, or by calling Marguerite Fernandes at X5158.




Searchable Lab Report Database Available

A new web-based interface to the LBNL Report Database is now available to Lab employees. Since 1989, all LBNL published documents that have have gone through the Report Coordination Office and have received an LBNL number have been included in the Report Coordination database. The database, presently consisting of 16,000 records, is searchable by author, title words, report number, report date, and division/department name. The link to the database is available from the library's homepage (




Lab Life

David and Mary Piepho are the proud parents of Mariah Ann, born on Sept. 19. Mariah weighed 6 lb., 9 oz. and was 19-3/4" long. David works in the Fire Department.




Craft Fair to Be Held Before Thanksgiving

The second Berkeley Lab Craft Fair, scheduled for Friday, Nov. 21, at the cafeteria, will ring in the holiday atmosphere with some 40 booths selling everything from holiday ornaments and handmade clothing to jewelry, pottery, porcelain and baked goods. The fair will start at 4 p.m. All Lab employees, their families, former employees and retirees are invited to attend. Each crafter will donate an item for a free drawing. Santa is also scheduled to stop by and join in the fun. For more information, contact Kathy Ellington (X4931,




Computer Desk Ready for Your Call

The Lab's new centralized help desk, the Computing Infrastructure Support Center, is now fully staffed and functioning. Its staff can be reached at 486-HELP. The Support Center has been developed to serve as a single point of contact for all desktop computing issues and inquiries, from application problems to network accounts. You can also access the Support Center through its website ( Please make sure to fill in all the required information on the web form. The staff--Martin Gelbaum, Marty Morimoto, Larz Sherer, Alex Rahbar and Sheri Ann Palmer--are currently located in Bldg. 50F.




Correction: Runaround Results

The Runaround winners' column in the Oct. 17 issue of Currents listed incorrect results for women ages 50 to 59. The actual results are:

Women 50-59

1 16:57.4 Jane Colman

2 17:11.3 Wladyslawa Swider

3 17:47.4 Marie Alberti


Full results of the Runaround can now be found on the Runaround website (





The Berkeley Lab Calendar is published biweekly here on the World Wide Web and in Currents by the Public Information Department. Employees can list a meeting, class, or event in the Calendar by using this submission form. The deadline for submissions is 5 p.m. on Monday in the week that Currents is published.

In addition to the events listed below, Berkeley Lab's Washington, D.C. Projects office is hosting a Science and Technology Seminars series. 

Scientific Conferences







Presentation To Introduce Financial Management System
Overview of the Laboratory's new financial management system, 1:30-3 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium



Procurement Information Booth
Information about the "procard," 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., cafeteria



From noon to 12:45 p.m., Berkeley TRIP commute store will have its "Tripmobile" in the Lab's cafeteria parking lot to allow employees to purchase AC Transit, BART, and other commute tickets.




Presentation To Introduce Financial Management System
Overview of the Laboratory's new financial management system, 10-11:30 a.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium



Employee Music Club
General meeting at noon in the lower cafeteria



7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m., Bldg. 54 parking lot


African-American Employees Association
General meeting at noon in Bldg. 90-1099


From noon to 12:45 p.m., Berkeley TRIP commute store will have its "Tripmobile" in the Lab's cafeteria parking lot to allow employees to purchase AC Transit, BART, and other commute tickets.




Seminars & Lectures

November 4, Tuesday

NERSC Division Seminar
"An Overview of the Distributed-Parallel Storage System" will be presented by Brian Tierney, head of the new Data Intensive Computing Group, from 2 to 3:30 p.m. in Bldg. 50B-4205.



November 6, Thursday

Environmental Energy Technologies Division
Building Energy Seminar
"California's Last Salmon: Unnatural Policies of Natural Resource Agencies" will be presented by Michael Black, an independent environmental historian and policy analyst, at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.



November 7, Friday

Center for Beam Physics Seminar
"High Energy Density Physics for Stewardship" will be presented by Steve Libby of LLNL at 10:30 a.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room.



November 13, Thursday

Environmental Energy Technologies Division
Building Energy Seminar
"Accelerating the Transition to a Renewable Energy Economy and Non-Polluting Transportation System" will be presented by John Berger, author and environmental consultant, at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.


Surface Science and Catalysis Science Seminar
"Magnetic Surface Microscopy by SPLEEM (Spin Polarized Low Energy Electron Microscopy)" will be presented by Helmut Poppa of the Materials Sciences Division at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 auditorium.



November 14, Friday

Center for Beam Physics Seminar
"Relativistic Nonlinear Optics in Plasmas by 3D Particle-In-Cell Simulations" will be presented by Alexander Pukhov of the Max Planck Institute at 10:30 a.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room.


Items for the calendars may be sent via e-mail to, faxed to X6641 or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the Nov. 14 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, Nov. 10.




Energy Awareness Month

Lab Researchers Monitor Copiers to Cut Down Energy Waste

By Antonia Reaves

Do you know what equipment in your office uses the most energy? If you guessed the copy machine, you are correct, according to information from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Copiers vary widely in the amount of power they draw, depending largely on copier speed. However, most of the electrical consumption occurs when copiers are idle. The EPA estimates that seven million copiers are currently in use in the U.S. and that most of them remain idle for several hours each day.

To cut down on such energy waste, in 1995 the EPA developed a new component to its Energy Star Office Equipment program, which encourages copier manufacturers to incorporate automated power management features into their new machines. As a result, Energy Star copiers power down to an "off" mode, drawing very low power after no activity has occurred for a specified time. Energy Star copiers that fit the July 1, 1997 EPA criteria have additional controls that step down the power first to a "low-power" mode after only 15 minutes of no activity. The EPA estimates that these power management features on Energy Star copiers could reduce annual electricity costs by 60 percent.

Mary Ann Piette and Bruce Nordman, both researchers in the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, have been funded by the EPA to evaluate the field performance of Energy Star copiers. The EPA hopes to use the information to further optimize savings.

In order to measure the energy savings from Energy Star copiers, Nordman has conducted nighttime audits to see whether Lab copiers are typically turned off at night. After checking half of the copiers at the Lab, Nordman found that only five percent of the non-Energy Star copiers were switched off; one-third were fully on, and the remaining were in a "power- saver" mode. As expected, the Energy Star copiers were all powered down to their "off" mode, leading Nordman to conclude that "Energy Star copiers do appear to be saving energy."

The next step in quantifying electricity savings will be to analyze data collected from the detailed monitoring of six selected copiers at the Laboratory.

In addition to the overuse of electricity, copiers also consume a significant amount of paper--two billion dollar's worth nationwide each year. According to the EPA, it takes 10 times more energy to manufacture a piece of paper than to copy an image onto it. Yet according to estimates, double-sided copies are only made 26 percent of the time.

To analyze what strategies might change this statistic, Nordman has been measuring the use of double-sided copying at the Lab. So far, he noted that Energy Star copiers whose default is double-sided copying have had that feature disabled. On the other hand, he also found that "just putting up signs asking people to please make double-sided copies increased the double-sided to single-sided copying ratio by eight percent."

Another key issue Piette and Nordman have included in their research is user satisfaction. Later this year they will survey employees both inside and outside the Laboratory to better understand public perceptions and use of Energy Star copiers.

In the meantime, Lab employees can save thousands of dollars each year simply by making double-sided instead of single-sided copies and by turning off copiers when they are not needed.

For more information on the research being conducted at the Lab, contact Nordman at X7089 ( or Piette at X6286 ( More information on Energy Star copiers can be found on the web at




Flea Market


'68 VW Transporter, everyday driver, runs great, recently smogged, gd radial tires, upholstery & brakes, decent sunshine yellow/white paint job, Toshiba AM/FM cass., installed in-dash tachometer, fully carpeted woodpanel int., full bed platform in the back, $2K. D.Busby, X6285

'80 CHEVROLET Chevette, 3-dr hatchbk, 100K mi., reliable, gd tires, as is, $750/b.o. Rose, X7991

'86 VW Golf Cabriolet, gray, new paint, 160K mi., exc. cond., cass., $2280. 525-0564

'87 CHEVETTE, 4-dr hatchbk, a/t, a/c, 34K mi., $1995/b.o. X7729, 799-7041

'87 NISSAN Sentra sedan, XE, 4-dr, 5-spd, a/t, AM/FM cass., gd cond., $1500/b.o. X7291, 938-9132

'88 DODGE Colt Vista sta. wgn, 105K mi., fully loaded, 3rd seat, smog OK, $1500/b.o. François, X4213, 235-3992

'91 GEO Metro, 4-dr, a/t, a/c, AM/FM/cass., gd tires, great mileage, new brakes & battery, newer engine, exc. cond., 117K mi., $2195. Dave, 855-1328 (after 6 p.m.)

SNOW CHAINS for 15" tires, $25. 687-3904


SF OPERA, Pelleas et Melisande, 11/14, 8 p.m.; Eugene Onegin, 12/5, 8 p.m., Balcony Circle Center, $140/pr. Diana, X6444

SF OPERA, Pelleas et Melisande, Sun., 11/23, 1 p.m., single ticket in Row A, Balcony, $47. Gil, X6802, 376-1435

SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING Water Show, Albany Pool (indoor), Sat., 11/22 & Sun., 11/23, 7-8:30 p.m., adults, $4, under 18, $3. Tennessee, X5013


BASSOON PLAYER for Woodwind quintet, weekly rehearsals in Berkeley. Jan, X4971

BIG GAME TICKETS. Michelle, X5877

HOUSE TO SIT, short/long term, responsible, caring, exp., pet & plant care. Amy, 843-5433


BOAT, Searay cruiser, 22.5', SRV225, 260 Merc outdrive, slps 4, head, galley, lots of teak, 300 hours, delta canvas, very gd cond., incl. Trailrite tandem axle trailer, best offer. 376-2211

BOOMBOX, Panasonic, cass./CD, exc. cond., $100; color TV, Sharp, 13", remote control, gd cond., cable ready, $70. 845-5154

CD, LeAnn Rimes, You Light Up My Life, Inspirational Songs, played twice, $10. Mary, X5771

DINING TABLE, lg., light oak w/8 matching upholstered chairs, Drexel Heritage, very gd cond., $600/b.o. 339-3505

FILE CABINET, 2-drwr, metal, letter sz., $25/b.o.; heavy-duty BBQ, approx. 2 ft. across, rolls, gd cond., $20/b.o.; washer, works but needs timer, almond, $25/b.o. Dave, 855-1328 (after 6 p.m.)

JEWELRY, 14K/18K, impostors, Joan Rivers, bargain prices; recliner, Stratolounger, lt. taupe, $50; print, walnut/gold frame, triple matted, 43x33, J. Brownscombe, 1800's, $50; exerciser, Fast Trac II, never used, paid $300, $150; tennis racket, Wilson String Graphite, $50; tennis racket, Wilson Sting, $25. Diana, X6444

LAWN MOWER, 5-Hp, 22" gas mower, Sears, well maintained, gd cond., $100. Steve, 776-7541

MOUNTAIN BIKE, Kona Cinder Cone, 18" frame, Shimano XT, Girvin Vector 2 fork, clipless, Titec bars, Azonic stem, gd cond., climbs great, $775. 687-3904

MOVING SALE, TV, VCR, household appliances, sm. furniture, microwave oven & more. Melvin, X4316

MOVING SALE, table+6 chairs, $150; futon, $40; bed, $150; garden table+4 chairs, $50; shelves (2), $10 ea.; refrig., $170; washer, $100; TV, 24", $150; vac. cleaner, $50; changing table, bike, iron, blender, tools, trimmer & ladder. François, X4213, 235-3992

REFRIGERATOR, Frigidare, 19.3 cu. ft., frost free, side by side, $290; lounge chairs (6), $20 ea.; arm chairs (2), $45 ea.; bar stool, $45. Yongyop, X5397, 524-4199

ROAD BIKE, Trek 1000, 56cm (lg.) alum. frame, Suntour/Durace, w/Vetta C15 computer, $225/b.o. Debbie, X4533, 704-1468

SPEAKERS, BSR 2-way, $70/pr. Debbey, X6430, 527-8210

TWIN BED FRAME & headboard/footboard sets, 2 matching, solid maple, $35 ea.; 2 matching twin bed frame & headboard sets, $15 ea.; twin sz. box spring, $35; 1500 watt quarts elec. heater, $25; 8 cup coffee maker (percolator type), $15; 18" scroll saw, $45; 4' and 7' curtain rod assemblies, $5 ea.; 4' molded plastic sandbox w/cover, $20; man's dress leather jacket, sz. 38, $100. 687-3904

UPRIGHT PIANO, heavy, early 20s, exc. cond., $750; acoustic guitar, Goya, early 60s, hard case, needs work, $150; Miracle Piano Teaching System/IBM PC, keyboard, cables, manual & disk, $100, or $800 for all. Nick, 938-7969


BERKELEY, nr Cedar/Euclid, short-term sublet, Dec.-Jan., or just part of Dec. if preferred, 1-bdrm apt in sm. bldg., lg. living rm, frpl, balcony, walk to UCB/shuttle, $900/mo. (negot.). Steve, X6941, 841-9709

BERKELEY, Elmwood, furn. studio, sublet 11/20 - 1/10, w/kitchen & washer/dryer, $146/wk + elec. & phone. Steven, X6966, 204-9494

EL CERRITO, furn. 2-bdrm, 2-bth lux. condo to share w/1 person, frpl, minibar, parking, BART 1 blk, $450/mo., 1/2 utils. Tai, X5015, 232-6369

EL CERRITO HILLS, nr Kensington/Berkeley, 3-bdrm, 2-bth home, panoramic bay view, piano, 3 decks, sauna, washer/dryer, no smoking, no pets, BART, bus or 10 min. drive to LBNL, avail. 1/1, prefer yr. lease, $1500/mo. X6005

KENSINGTON, furn. 3-bdrm, 2-bth home, 2-bridge view, garden, 2-car garage, nr elementary school, avail. 12/16, prefer 1 yr. lease. Monica, 525-7805

OAKLAND, Montclair Dist., 3-bdrm, 1-1/2-bth house, part. furn., lg. backyd, workshop, garage, hardwd flrs, skylight, bay windows, cathedral ceilings, washer/dryer, walking distance to elementary & jr. high schools, avail. 1/1/98, 1 yr. lease, refs. req'd, $2K/mo., 1st, last & dep. Diana, 482-5420

ORINDA, rm in home, $750/mo., $300/wk, $50/night, utils. incl. Mrs. Johnston, 254-4763

EXCHANGE: visiting scientist & family from Paris hope to exchange housing w/LBNL family w/home in the Berkeley area who are wishing to stay in the Paris area for a 2 yr. period starting Aug. '98. Marcella, X6304

WANTED: visiting scientist seeks 1-2 bdrm sublet for mo. of Dec., exact dates negot., willing to mind pets., Eric, X6135,

WANTED: starting 1/1/98 for one year, visiting LBNL as a post-doc w/Kannan Krishnan (X4614), interested in 2-bdrm house/apt in No. Berkeley/Albany. mohamed@

WANTED: rent or sublet, starting 11/1, house or apt for family moving from East Coast, Oakland/ Berkeley area, prefer Rockridge/ Piedmont Ave., short/long term, up to $1200/mo Lesley, 654-1386

WANTED: Swiss linguist needs a rm & bath from early Feb. thru late May. Dave, X7344, Dave or Sally, 524-2904,

WANTED: 2 or 3 bedroom house for 6 mo. to 1 yr. rental, within El Cerrito/Albany/Kensington/Berk/ Oak/Emeryville area. Mary, 642-5205, mpezzuto@socrates.berkeley. edu

Real Estate

DANVILLE, 3656 Old Blackhawk Rd., 2.2 acres, secluded, oak trees, creek, $750K. 527-0697

GROVELAND, nr Yosemite, Pine Mt. Lake, 3-bdrm, 2-bth house, forest & mtn. views, cntrl heat & air, nearby pool, lake, airport, & golf, $123K. Guy, X4703, Kathy, 482-1777

SONOMA COAST, 2.16 acres, Timbercove, Ft. Ross area, all utils. Nick, 527-1965


BAHAMAS, Taino Beach Resort, nr Freeport, 1-bdrm condo, slps 4, every amenity, pool/tennis, on beach, 60 days adv. notice, $500/wk. X6005

SO. LAKE TAHOE, Tahoe Keys, 3-bdrm, 2.5 bth house, on the water, fenced yd, quiet area, nr skiing & attractions, water & mtn. views, $125/night. 376-2211

Lost & Found

LOST: box from Ted Pella Inc. sent to 7-100 w/no name on it, contains some folding copper TEM grids, some Ni TEM grids w/rectangular mesh, and a "celestial spheres" polystyrene sz. standard. Please return to Allen L. Johnson, 7-100, X7398

LOST: bracelet, silver w/garnets, Fri., 10/24, in the vicinity of Bldg. 50. Ana, X7120


Flea Market Deadline

Flea Market items may be sent via Quickmail, e-mailed to, faxed to X6641, or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the Nov. 14 issue is 5 p.m. Friday, Nov. 7.








Currents and the Public Information Department Staff

Currents is Berkeley Lab's biweekly employee newspaper published by the Lab's Public Information Department, which is managed by Ron Kolb. Kolb can be reached at 510-486-7586 or at

Monica Friedlander (510-495-2248) is the editor of Currents and you can use this form to write the editor.

The staff writers for Currents are Jeffery Kahn (, Paul Preuss (, and Lynn Yarris ( Jon Bashor ( is a contributing writer.

Jacki Noble (X5771) produces the "Flea Market" ( and the "Calendar" ( Our mailing address is: Berkeley Lab Public Information Department, One Cyclotron Road Mailstop 65, Berkeley, CA 94720. The office telephone number is 510-486-5771 and our fax is 510-486- 6641.



Search | Home | Questions