Our studies of human energy expenditure (exercise) in cohorts and twin populations provide: 1) immediate societal benefits through exercise prescription; and 2) long-term societal benefits by suggesting targets for drug discovery. No other intervention produces the degree or diversity of health benefits as exercise. These benefits are accessible without regard to political, geographic, or economic boundaries.
National Runners’ and Walker’s Health Studies. Our lab created the National Runners’ and Walker’s Health Study cohorts between 1991 and 2000. These are the only epidemiological cohorts specifically designed to assess the health benefits of exercise. The cohorts currently include over 150,000 subjects, which also makes them among the largest epidemiological cohorts in the world. This research showed that exercise was associated with: 1) 40% lower brain cancer risk when no other modifiable risk factor is known (potentially preventing 9800 brain cancers in the US per year), 76% lower kidney cancer risk (potentially preventing 49,500 incident kidney cancers/year), 41% lower breast cancer mortality (potentially preventing 16,250 breast cancer deaths/year), 37% lower pneumonia mortality (potentially preventing 20,500 pneumonia deaths/year), 45% lower sepsis mortality (potentially preventing 132,000 sepsis deaths/year), 45% lower risk for hip replacement (potentially preventing 145,000 replacements/year), and 42% lower risk for cataracts (potentially preventing 714,000 replacements/year). In addition, we showed that running was more effective in promoting weight loss than walking (relevant to the 68 million US adults seriously trying to lose weight), exercise was associated with 32% lower incidence of cardiac arrhythmias (relevant to the 4 million US patients diagnosed with arrhythmias), and 40% lower risk for chronic kidney disease per mile/day run in hypertensives (16% of the adult population suffers from chronic kidney disease). Approximately 6 out of 10 Americans walk for exercise or transportation and our research showed that the quickness of the walk affects its health benefits. Running also decreased the risk for incident benign prostate hyperplasia by 33%, gallbladder disease by 52%, gout by 45%, diverticular disease by 48%, macular degeneration by 54%, and glaucoma by 43%.
Identical twins discordant for exercise. To study the interaction between genetics and exercise, we surveyed 3805 monozygotic twins in which at least one twin ran or walked regularly for exercise. Their data showed that exercise largely eliminated the inheritance of body weight.
John Gofman’s Livermore cohort. In the early 1950’s there was a major debate of whether heart attacks were better predicted by total cholesterol or the particles that carry the cholesterol (lipoproteins) in the blood. In 1954, Dr. John Gofman measured both cholesterol and lipoproteins in 2518 male and female employees of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to compare their associations with heart disease. Our lab showed that both high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) particle concentrations predicted coronary heart disease better than total cholesterol during 53-years of follow-up. This study is the longest follow-up study of lipoproteins and heart disease ever conducted.
Lipoprotein subfractions. In collaboration with Dr. Ronald Krauss, we have conducted multiple studies showing that lipoprotein subclasses show specific relationships to diet, exercise, genetics and heart disease. Small LDL particles in particular appear to increase coronary heart disease risk, whereas large HDL particles appear to be protective. The specific effects of exercise, diet, and weight loss on small LDL and large HDL may explain in part their effects on coronary heart disease.
Quantile-dependent genetic and environmental effects. Quantile regression is used to test whether genetic and other variables affecting the phenotype increase or decrease in accordance with the population percentile of the trait. This is a special class of gene-environmental interaction, which we refer to as quantile-specific penetrance.
In the news
Running better than walking for breast cancer survivors:
Exercise and breast size affect breast cancer risk:
Walking and running equally beneficial for preventing high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and heart disease (The American Heart Association reported that 46.8 million people viewed news reports about this research):
Running protects against arthritis and hip replacement, same as walking:
Running better than walking for weight loss:
Walking further and faster are better for health:
Too much exercise may be less beneficial:
Selected PublicationsHealth benefits of exercise:
Williams PT. Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking. Int J Cancer. 2014 (in press).
Williams PT, Reduced risk of incident kidney cancer from walking and running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46:312-7.
Williams PT. Breast cancer mortality vs. exercise and breast size in runners and walkers. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e80616.
Williams PT. Reduced total and cause-specific mortality from walking and running in diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 (in press).
Williams PT. Inadequate exercise as a risk factor for sepsis mortality. PloS One. 2013;8:e79344.
Williams PT, Dose-response relationship of physical activity to premature and total all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in walkers. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78777.
Williams PT, Thompson PD. The relationship of walking intensity to total and cause-specific mortality. Results from the National Walkers' Health Study. PloS One. 2013;8:e81098.
Williams PT, Reduced risk of brain cancer mortality from walking and running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 (in press).
Williams PT. Dose-response relationship between exercise and respiratory disease mortality. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 (in press).
Williams PT, Walking and running produce similar reductions in cause-specific disease mortality in hypertensives. Hypertension 2013;62:485-91.
Williams PT, Franklin BA. Reduced incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in walkers and runners. PLoS One. 2013;8:e65302
Williams PT, Thompson PD. Walking versus running for hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes mellitus risk reduction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1085-9.
Williams PT. Effects of running and walking on osteoarthritis and hip replacement risk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:1292-7.
Williams PT. Greater weight loss from running than walking during a 6.2-yr prospective follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:706-13.
Williams PT. Walking and running are associated with similar reductions in cataract risk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;45:1089-96.
Williams PT. Attenuating effect of vigorous physical activity on the risk for inherited obesity: a study of 47,691 runners. PLoS One. 2012;7:e31436.
Williams PT. Distance walked and run as improved metrics over time-based energy estimation in epidemiological studies and prevention; evidence from medication use. PLoS One. 2012;7:e41906.
Williams PT. Non-exchangeability of running vs. other exercise in their association with adiposity, and its implications for public health recommendations. PLoS One. 2012;7:e36360.
Williams PT. Advantage of distance- versus time-based estimates of walking in predicting adiposity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1728-37.
Williams PT. Walking attenuates the relationships of high-meat, low-fruit dietary intake to total and regional adiposity in men and women. Obesity. 2012;20:1929-35.
Williams PT. Exercise attenuates the association of body weight with diet in 106,737 runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:2120-6.
Williams PT. Dose-response relationship between walking and the attenuation of inherited weight. Prev Med. 2011;52:293-9.
Williams PT. Usefulness of cardiorespiratory fitness to predict coronary heart disease risk independent of physical activity. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106:210-5.
Williams PT. Reductions in incident coronary heart disease risk above guideline physical activity levels in men. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:524-7.
Williams PT. Relationship of incident glaucoma versus physical activity and fitness in male runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1566-72.
Williams PT. Incident diverticular disease is inversely related to vigorous physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1042-7.
Williams PT. Reduction in incident stroke risk with vigorous physical activity: evidence from 7.7-year follow-up of the national runners' health study. Stroke. 2009;40:1921-3.
Williams PT. Prospective study of incident age-related macular degeneration in relation to vigorous physical activity during a 7-year follow-up. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:101-6.
Williams PT. Lower prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes in marathoners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:523-9.
Williams PT. Incident hypercholesterolemia in relation to changes in vigorous physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 41:74-80.
Williams PT. Prospective epidemiological cohort study of reduced risk for incident cataract with vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness during a 7-year follow-up. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:95-100.
Williams PT. Relationship of running intensity to hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1740-8.
Williams PT. Effects of running distance and performance on incident benign prostatic hyperplasia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 40:1733-9.
Williams PT. Independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, vigorous physical activity, and body mass index on clinical gallbladder disease risk. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:2239-47.
Williams PT. Self-selection accounts for inverse association between weight and cardiorespiratory fitness. Obesity. 2008;16:102-6.
Williams PT. Reduced diabetic, hypertensive, and cholesterol medication use with walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:433-43.
Williams PT. Association between walking distance and percentiles of body mass index in older and younger men. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42:352-6.
Williams PT. A cohort study of incident hypertension in relation to changes in vigorous physical activity in men and women. J Hypertens. 2008;26:1085-93.
Williams PT. Effects of diet, physical activity and performance, and body weight on incident gout in ostensibly healthy, vigorously active men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1480-7.
Williams PT. Vigorous exercise, fitness and incident hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:998-1006.
Williams PT. Reduced diabetic, hypertensive, and cholesterol medication use with walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:433-43.
Williams PT. Asymmetric weight gain and loss from increasing and decreasing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:296-302.
Williams PT, Franklin B. Vigorous exercise and diabetic, hypertensive, and hypercholesterolemia medication use. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1933-41
Williams PT. Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes in male runners. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2838-42.
Williams PT. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity of faster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers. Int J Obes. 2007;31:652-62.
Williams PT. Maintaining vigorous activity attenuates 7-yr weight gain in 8340 runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:801-9.
Williams PT, Thompson PD. Dose-dependent effects of training and detraining on weight in 6406 runners during 7.4 years. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:1975-84.
Williams PT, Wood PD. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-related weight gain. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:543-51.
Williams PT. Nonlinear relationships between weekly walking distance and adiposity in 27,596 women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1893-901.
Williams PT. Longitudinal changes in cardiorespiratory fitness: measurement error or true change? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:877-8
Williams PT, Satariano WA. Relationships of age and weekly running distance to BMI and circumferences in 41,582 physically active women. Obes Res. 2005;13:1370-80. 60.
Williams PT, Pate RR. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in 60,617 male runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1329-37.
Williams PT. Vigorous exercise and the population distribution of body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:120-8.
Williams PT. The relationships of vigorous exercise, alcohol, and adiposity to low and high high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Metabolism. 2004;53:700-9.
Williams PT. The illusion of improved physical fitness and reduced mortality. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:736-40.
Williams PT. Health effects resulting from exercise versus those from body fat loss. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(6 Suppl):S611-21
Williams PT. Physical fitness and activity as separate heart disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:754-61.
Williams PT. Coronary heart disease risk factors of vigorously active sexagenarians and septuagenarians. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:134-42.
Williams PT. Relationships of heart disease risk factors to exercise quantity and intensity. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:237-45.
Williams PT. Interactive effects of exercise, alcohol, and vegetarian diet on coronary artery disease risk factors in 9242 runners: the National Runners' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:1197-206.
Williams PT. Evidence for the incompatibility of age-neutral overweight and age-neutral physical activity standards from runners. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:1391-6.
Williams PT. Relationship of distance run per week to coronary heart disease risk factors in 8283 male runners. The National Runners' Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:191-8.
Williams PT. Deviations from maximum weight predict high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in runners: the National Runners' Health Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:6-13.
Williams PT. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in female runners. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1298-303.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Stefanick ML, Vranizan KM, Wood PD. Effects of low-fat diet, calorie restriction, and running on lipoprotein subfraction concentrations in moderately overweight men. Metabolism. 1994;43:655-63.
Williams PT, Stefanick ML, Vranizan KM, Wood PD. The effects of weight loss by exercise or by dieting on plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in men with low, intermediate, and normal-to-high HDL at baseline. Metabolism. 1994;43:917-24.
Williams PT. High density lipoproteins and lipase activity in runners. Atherosclerosis. 1993;98:251-4.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Vranizan KM, Albers JJ, Wood PD. Effects of weight-loss by exercise and by diet on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II and the particle-size distribution of high-density lipoproteins in men. Metabolism. 1992;41:441-9.
Williams PT. Weight set-point theory predicts HDL-cholesterol levels in previously obese long-distance runners. Int J Obes. 1990;14:421-7.
Williams PT. Weight set-point theory and the high-density lipoprotein concentrations of long-distance runners. Metabolism. 1990;39:460-7.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Vranizan KM, Wood PD. Changes in lipoprotein subfractions during diet-induced and exercise-induced weight loss in moderately overweight men. Circulation. 1990;81:1293-304.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Vranizan KM, Albers JJ, Terry RB, Wood PD. Effects of exercise-induced weight loss on low density lipoprotein subfractions in healthy men. Arteriosclerosis. 1989;9:623-32.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Wood PD, Lindgren FT, Giotas C, Vranizan KM. Lipoprotein subfractions of runners and sedentary men. Metabolism. 1986;35:45-52.
Williams PT, Wood PD, Krauss RM, Haskell WL, Vranizan KM, Blair SN, Terry R, Farquhar JW. Does weight loss cause the exercise-induced increase in plasma high density lipoproteins? Atherosclerosis. 1983;47:173-85.
Williams PT, Wood PD, Haskell WL, Vranizan K. The effects of running mileage and duration on plasma lipoprotein levels. JAMA. 1982;247:2674-9.
Thompson PD, Stern MP, Williams P, Duncan K, Haskell WL, Wood PD. Death during jogging or running. A study of 18 cases. JAMA. 1979;242:1265-7.
Health Benefits of Diet: Krauss RM, Blanche PJ, Rawlings RS, Fernstrom HS, Williams PT. Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:1025-31
Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. Reduced LDL particle size in children consuming a very-low-fat diet is related to parental LDL-subclass patterns. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1611-6.
Williams PT, Krauss RM. Low-fat diets, lipoprotein subclasses, and heart disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:949-50.
Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. A very low-fat diet is not associated with improved lipoprotein profiles in men with a predominance of large, low-density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:411-8.
Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Campos H, Blanche P, Williams PT, Krauss RM. Change in dietary saturated fat intake is correlated with change in mass of large low-density-lipoprotein particles in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:828-36.
Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. LDL subclass patterns and lipoprotein response to a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet in women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Apr;17(4):707-14.
Williams PT, Dreon DM, Krauss RM. Effects of dietary fat on high-density-lipoprotein subclasses are influenced by both apolipoprotein E isoforms and low-density-lipoprotein subclass patterns. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:1234-40.
Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Williams PT, Haskell WL. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:461-6.
Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Garay SC, Williams PT, Superko HR, Fortmann SP, Albers JJ, Vranizan KM, et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:1173-9.
Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, Williams PT, Terry RB, Wood PD. Dietary fat:carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:995-1000.
Williams PT, Fortmann SP, Terry RB, Garay SC, Vranizan KM, Ellsworth N, Wood PD. Associations of dietary fat, regional adiposity, and blood pressure in men. JAMA. 1987;257:3251-6.
Williams PT, Wood PD, Vranizan KM, Albers JJ, Garay SC, Taylor CB. Coffee intake and elevated cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in men. JAMA. 1985;253:1407-11.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Wood PD, Albers JJ, Dreon D, Ellsworth N. Associations of diet and alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein subclasses. Metabolism. 1985 34:524-30.
Camargo CA Jr, Williams PT, Vranizan KM, Albers JJ, Wood PD. The effect of moderate alcohol intake on serum apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. A controlled study. JAMA. 1985;253:2854-7.
Williams PT, Wood PD, Vranizan KM, Albers JJ, Garay SC, Taylor CB. Coffee intake and elevated cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in men. JAMA. 1985;253:1407-11.Health effects of body weight and weight loss:
Williams PT. Evidence that obesity risk factor potencies are weight dependent, a phenomenon that may explain accelerated weight gain in western societies. PLoS One. 2011;6:e27657.
Williams PT, Hoffman KM. Optimal body weight for the prevention of coronary heart disease in normal-weight physically active men. Obesity. 2009;17:1428-34.
Siri-Tarino PW, Williams PT, Fernstrom HS, Rawlings RS, Krauss RM. Reversal of small, dense LDL subclass phenotype by normalization of adiposity. Obesity. 2009;17:1768-75.
Williams PT. Changes in body weight and waist circumference affect incident hypercholesterolemia during 7 years of follow-up. Obesity. 2008;16:2163-8.
Williams PT. Increases in weight and body size increase the odds for hypertension during 7 years of follow-up. Obesity. 2008;16:2541-8.
Williams PT, Hoffman K, La I. Weight-related increases in hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes risk in normal weight male and female runners. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1811-9.
Williams PT. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women. Atherosclerosis. 2004;174:363-71.
John Gofman’s 1956 Livermore cohort:
Williams PT. Low high-density lipoprotein 3 reduces the odds of men surviving to age 85 during 53-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:430-6.
Williams PT. Fifty-three year follow-up of coronary heart disease versus HDL2 and other lipoproteins in Gofman's Livermore Cohort. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:266-72.
Williams PT, Feldman DE. Prospective study of coronary heart disease vs. HDL2, HDL3, and other lipoproteins in Gofman's Livermore Cohort. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:196-202.
Cholesterol and lipoproteins:
Williams PT, Zhao XQ, Marcovina SM, Otvos JD, Brown BG, Krauss RM. Comparison of four methods of analysis of lipoprotein particle subfractions for their association with angiographic progression of coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2014 (in press).
Williams PT, Zhao XQ, Marcovina SM, Brown BG, Krauss RM. Levels of Cholesterol in Small LDL Particles Predict Atherosclerosis Progression and Incident CHD in the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS). PLoS One. 2013;8:e56782.
Musunuru K, Orho-Melander M, Caulfield MP, Li S, Salameh WA, Reitz RE, Berglund G, Hedblad B, Engström G, Williams PT, Kathiresan S, Melander O, Krauss RM. Ion mobility analysis of lipoprotein subfractions identifies three independent axes of cardiovascular risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1975-80.
Superko HR, Berneis KK, Williams PT, Rizzo M, Wood PD. Gemfibrozil reduces small low-density lipoprotein more in normolipemic subjects classified as low-density lipoprotein pattern B compared with pattern A. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:1266-72.
Williams PT, Superko HR, Haskell WL, Alderman EL, Blanche PJ, Holl LG, Krauss RM. Smallest LDL particles are most strongly related to coronary disease progression in men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:314-21.
Williams PT, Krauss RM. Associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with low-density lipoprotein subclasses. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:1082-90.
Williams PT, Dreon DM, Blanche PJ, Krauss RM. Variability of plasma HDL subclass concentrations in men and women over time. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 17:702-6.
Williams PT, Haskell WL, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM. The associations of high-density lipoprotein subclasses with insulin and glucose levels, physical activity, resting heart rate, and regional adiposity in men with coronary artery disease: the Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project baseline survey. Metabolism. 1995;44:106-14.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Vranizan KM, Stefanick ML, Wood PD, Lindgren FT. Associations of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with gradient gel electrophoresis estimates of high density lipoprotein subfractions in men and women. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992;12:332-40.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Nichols AV, Vranizan KM, Wood PD. Identifying the predominant peak diameter of high-density and low-density lipoproteins by electrophoresis. J Lipid Res. 1990;31:1131-9.
Krauss RM, Williams PT, Lindgren FT, Wood PD. Coordinate changes in levels of human serum low and high density lipoprotein subclasses in healthy men. Arteriosclerosis. 1988;8:155-62.
Krauss RM, Lindgren FT, Williams PT, Kelsey SF, Brensike J, Vranizan K, Detre KM, Levy RI. Intermediate-density lipoproteins and progression of coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolaemic men. Lancet. 1987;2:62-6.
Williams PT, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM. Correlations of plasma lipoproteins with LDL subfractions by particle size in men and women. J Lipid Res. 1992;33:765-74.
Williams PT, Krauss RM, Nichols AV, Vranizan KM, Wood PD. Identifying the predominant peak diameter of high-density and low-density lipoproteins by electrophoresis. J Lipid Res. 1990;31:1131-9.Genetics and identical twins:
Williams PT. Attenuated inheritance of body weight by running in monozygotic twins. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:98-103.
Williams PT, Blanche PJ, Krauss RM. Behavioral versus genetic correlates of lipoproteins and adiposity in identical twins discordant for exercise. Circulation. 2005;112:350-6.
Williams PT. Quantile-specific penetrance of genes affecting lipoproteins, adiposity and height. PLoS One. 2012;7:e28764.
Barber MJ, Mangravite LM, Hyde CL, Chasman DI, Smith JD, McCarty CA, Li X, Wilke RA, Rieder MJ, Williams PT, Ridker PM, Chatterjee A, Rotter JI, Nickerson DA, Stephens M, Krauss RM. Genome-wide association of lipid-lowering response to statins in combined study populations. PLoS One. 2010;5:e9763.
Chasman DI, Paré G, Zee RY, Parker AN, Cook NR, Buring JE, Kwiatkowski DJ, Rose LM, Smith JD, Williams PT, Rieder MJ, Rotter JI, Nickerson DA, Krauss RM, Miletich JP, Ridker PM. Genetic loci associated with plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B among 6382 white women in genome-wide analysis with replication. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2008;1:21-30.
Krauss RM, Mangravite LM, Smith JD, Medina MW, Wang D, Guo X, Rieder MJ, Simon JA, Hulley SB, Waters D, Saad M, Williams PT, Taylor KD, Yang H, Nickerson DA, Rotter JI. Variation in the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase gene is associated with racial differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to simvastatin treatment. Circulation. 2008;117:1537-44.
Krauss RM, Williams PT, Blanche PJ, Cavanaugh A, Holl LG, Austin MA. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: the Berkeley data set. Genet Epidemiol. 1993;10:523-8.
Williams PT, Vranizan KM, Austin MA, Krauss RM. Familial correlations of HDL subclasses based on gradient gel electrophoresis. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992;12:1467-74.