JOB HAZARDS ANALYSIS
Appendix C. Job Hazards
Approved by John Seabury
C.1 Job Hazards Analysis
a. Description of Work Statement
The Description of Work statement is a critical element of the JHA. The Description provides the basis for the further analysis of the tasks, hazards and controls: any Work performed and analyzed must be described in this statement.
When preparing a Description of Work, include at least the following elements, as applicable:
- Work Summary – provide a concise narrative summary of what the work entails, why it is being performed, and what you hope to accomplish with it. This statement defines the context for further analysis.
- Work Locations – where is the work to be performed? Generally this is a building/room listing but can be broader if applicable (e.g., throughout the shop areas of B77; sitewide indoors, outdoors and on roofs).You can also break down the different materials and processes (see bullet below) by location, if that makes sense.
- Materials Used – this description should be sufficiently detailed that the hazards associated with each material can be assessed. If some members of a family of materials have unique hazards, then they should be specified (e.g., specify which types of acids are used, what are the typical compositions of welding rods employed, which hand or power tools are used, etc.).
- Processes Employed – the processes and techniques should be listed with sufficient detail that hazards and potential exposures of the work effort can be determined. For example, “Work with chemicals” is not specific enough, nor is “Climb ladders.” Neither provides enough detail to determine the hazards/exposures. Better would be “Perform solvent-solvent extractions and acid-base titrations” and “Climb stepladders to reach and retrieve items up to 10 feet above the floor.” It may make sense to integrate the “Materials Used” and “Processes Employed” descriptions into one statement (e.g. “Perform inert-gas arc welding on aluminum, mild carbon and stainless steels”).
- Equipment Used – be specific enough that hazards can be determined. Generally this means providing a list of each piece of equipment. Details can be summarized (e.g., “Vertical mill” is probably sufficient, the manufacturer and model names probably do not add much to the description).
The Description of Work must be consistent with the Hazards Profile (the Tasks, Hazards and Controls) that analyzes that work. The Description provides information on what the work encompasses, and the Hazards Profile describes the controls necessary to safely conduct that Work. If the Hazards Profile contains controls for tasks that are not included in the Description, then there is an inconsistency that must be corrected. Similarly, if the Description implies hazards that are not adequately controlled, then that is also an inconsistency.
b. Tasks, Hazards, and
In analyzing the tasks, hazards,
and controls, the following apply:
that exceed those commonly performed by the general public must be included in
the Job Hazards Analysis. Examples of tasks that generally would NOT need to be
included in the JHA process include:
use; however, if this use is a significant part of the job, for example, a
telephone operator, then this might be included in the JHA.
typical passenger vehicles; however, driving a shuttle bus and operating a
forklift would be included in the JHA process.
use of office machines. (Desktop computer use averaging over 4 hours/day, or
laptop computer use averaging over 2 hours/day, is not considered incidental,
and should be included in the JHA process.
must be described in sufficient detail such that a properly trained individual
can assess the hazards. The actual level of detail will depend upon the
technical expertise of the Worker and the Work Lead. Table B-1 below provides
some examples of inadequate and adequate task descriptions to indicate the
proper minimum level of detail:
Examples of Task Descriptions
Working with chemicals (hazards
described in further detail).
Working with radioactive
Assembly and disassembly of
vacuum chambers and other apparatus.
Cutting wood on stationary
machinery such as table saws, shapers, and sanders.
Lifting boxes and equipment
to heights up to approximately 48” above ground level.
must be described in sufficient detail such that proper controls can be
specified. The controls, in turn, must be described in sufficient detail so
that an individual can determine exactly what is required. If a hazard has been
analyzed in a supplemental document such as a formal authorization (e.g., Radiological
Work Authorization, Activity Hazard Document) or an exposure Assessment, then
refer to the supplemental document directly rather than restating its contents.
If training is a control, then the particulars of the training — course number
if applicable, or course content if the training is task-specific (e.g.,
on-the-job training) – should be stated. Examples are given below, in Tables
B-2 and B-3:
Examples of Hazard Descriptions
Skin, eye or inhalation exposure to, or
property damage caused by, corrosive materials
Skin, eye or inhalation exposure to, or fire
from, flammable materials
Electrical shock and arc flash
Trips, slips, falls from heights; injuries
to persons below from dropped objects
Musculoskeletal discomfort or injury
Example Control Descriptions
Use proper Personal Protective
Wear lab coats, closed-toe
shoes, and safety glasses with side shields whenever handling chemicals.
Use nitrile gloves whenever
handling chemicals, unless other gloves are located at that Work location.
Wear earmuffs when operating the
Wear leather gloves or
equivalent whenever handling sheet metal.
Have a second person assist with
EHS0042 (Handling Aggressive
training, as documented in the lab notebook.
c. JHA Development Work
- During the JHA Development Work Session, the Worker
and Work Lead together review the draft Hazards Profile, and make any changes
necessary to have it accurately describe the tasks performed and the associated
hazards and controls. The Work Lead and Worker should add tasks and associated
hazards and controls if they are not described in the Hazards Profile, and
delete any that are listed but not applicable.
- Where required to
support the development of controls, request an Exposure Assessment through the
Division Safety Coordinator. See Appendix
E for a discussion of exposure assessment.
- A Facilitator (e.g.,
an EH&S Liaison, Division Safety Coordinator, EH&S Subject Matter
Expert, etc.) can be requested to assist in the JHA Development Work Session.
- If necessary, a draft
Hazards Profile may be saved and the process resumed at a later date.
- Upon agreement that the Hazards
Profile accurately reflects the tasks, hazards, and controls for the Work, the
Work Lead signs the document. This signature creates the Work Authorization, confirms
that the Work Authorization has been discussed with the Worker and that readiness review indicates that work may safely
proceed, and authorizes the Work subject to the controls specified. If
some portions of the Work require controls that are not in place (for example,
training, additional analysis, or formal authorization), the Worker may not
perform that portion of the Work until the required controls are in place.
Baseline JHA document is prepared by the JHA software.
C.2 The Individual
Baseline Job Hazards Analysis
All workers must have a Work Authorization
that contains the elements defined in Section 32.2.
A Hazards Profile is created by answering
questions about one’s work, with the answers supplemented by one or more
pre-defined Work Group Hazards Profiles. The process is illustrated in Appendix B: JHA Process Flowchart,
Path 2. Work Group Hazards Profiles are not required but are suggested to provide consistency of analysis within a set of Workers conducting similar Work.
a. Creating a Draft
Individual Baseline JHA
Responses to questions posed by the JHA system
generate preliminary information regarding tasks and hazards to which the
Worker may be exposed. This information is then used during a JHA Development
Work Session as a draft Hazards Profile.
b. Using a Work Group JHA
to Create a Draft Hazards Profile
In many Work situations, it is appropriate to
have a pre-defined set of tasks, hazards, and controls that are common to a
group of Workers. This pre-defined Work Group Baseline JHA can be used as a
template for a Hazards Profile during the JHA process. Using the Work Group JHA
approach assures that:
A new member of the group who is uncertain of his/her assigned tasks and locations will have a starting
point of reference.
All members of the group are properly authorized for tasks that they will be conducting.
The Work Group Owner performs the bulk of the analysis for Work under his/her control, and assures that
hazards are identified and controls applied consistently.
To create a Hazards Profile, the owner of that
Work Group JHA (who may be the Work Lead) proceeds as follows:
- Determine the members of the
Work Group. A Work Group is a set of individuals having common
administrative structure that performs similar tasks with common hazards
- Contact the Division Safety
Coordinator to initiate the Work Group JHA creation process. The Work
Group Owner will be given access to create Work Group JHAs by JHA System
Administrators at the request of the Division Safety Coordinator.
- The Division Safety
Coordinator (and any additional personnel requested, such as Subject
Matter Experts) assists the Work Group Owner in defining the parameters
that constitute the group, including members, scope of the Work, tasks
included and excluded, hazards, and controls. Work Group JHAs are
generated by the Work Group Owner responses to the JHA questions as they
apply to the Work Group. The end product is a Work Group Baseline JHA
rather than a draft Individual Baseline JHA.
- The Work Group Owner stores
the completed Work Group Baseline JHA, which makes it available for use by
members of the group
The group should be created at as high an
organizational level as is consistent with clearly defined administrative
structure, tasks, hazards, and controls. The precise level depends upon each
division’s management structure. In some divisions, it may be appropriate to
define the group at the department level, while in other divisions, it may be
more appropriate to define the group at the level of each research unit (or
possibly lower, if the size and diversity of the research unit call for it).
The Work Group Owner may make changes to the Work
Group JHA at any time. These changes affect future users of that template, but
do not affect previous users.
Task-based Job Hazards Analysis
Some tasks that a Worker may need to perform
are unpredictable, short-term, or unusual in nature, such that including them
in the Individual Baseline JHA is not efficient. In this case, a Task-based JHA
may be developed for these activities. Task-based JHAs are addenda to a
Worker’s Individual Baseline JHA, and exist only for the duration of the task.
Examples of situations that might be appropriate for a Task-based JHA include:
- Work requests through the
- Research field Work.
- Non-recurring laboratory tasks,
e.g., cleaning reactors, etc.
Task-based JHAs can be created through a
variety of methods. The process is illustrated in Appendix
B: JHA Process Flowchart, Path 1.
- The Individual Baseline JHA process can be used with the
- The Task-based JHA
process is not automated. Rather, it utilizes a paper process to create the
Task-based JHA from a form that must be manually completed.
- Initial information
regarding tasks and hazards is not obtained through answering a pre-defined
list of questions. Rather, it is obtained through review of the Work
assignment, job walk, discussion with vendors or suppliers, and/or discussion
between the Worker and Work Lead. This information is then used during the JHA
Development Work Session as a draft scope, task, hazard, and control list for
the Task-based Hazards Profile.
- Upon agreement that
the Task-based Hazards Profile accurately reflects the tasks, hazards, and
controls for the Work, the Work Lead signs the document. This signature creates
the Task-based Work Authorization, confirms that the Work Authorization has
been discussed with the Worker and that readiness
review indicates that work may safely proceed,, and authorizes the Work
subject to the controls. If some portions of the Work require controls that are
not in place (for example, training, additional analysis, or formal
authorization), the Worker may not perform that portion of the Work until the
required controls are in place.
A sample template for the Task-based Job Hazards Analysis
is shown in Appendix D.
- Divisions may use a Task-based Job Hazards Analysis process
developed internally that satisfies their business needs. Any alternative
Task-based JHA processes must be described in the Division’s ISM Plan, and must
be reviewed and approved by the EH&S Division Director.