Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety
Approved by Michael Wisherop
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Persons involved in crane or hoist operations at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) must:
- Be aware of the hazards related to the equipment and the load
- Know the methods for controlling those hazards
- Follow the proper operating procedures applicable to the type of lift and equipment
The designated operator must be qualified and authorized to use specific equipment.
Crane, hoist, and rigging equipment must be procured through the Facilities Division, as well as properly inspected, tested, and maintained.
Berkeley Lab’s Crane Safety Program is implemented through planning, authorization, qualification, and the appropriate use of properly inspected and rated hoisting equipment and rigging. Lifting and moving loads with forklifts is covered in PUB-3000, Chapter 28, Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks. Construction operations involving cranes are covered in Chapter 10, Construction Safety.
This policy establishes requirements for Berkeley Lab’s Crane, Hoisting, and Rigging Safety Program and applies to work with any crane or hoist operated at Laboratory-owned or -leased property, as well as Laboratory-managed field research. This program applies to the following Berkeley Lab personnel:
- Construction contractors
- Nonconstruction contractors and vendors
27.4 Roles and Responsibilities
Supervisors and Work Leads
- Ensure that personnel know how to safely operate cranes and hoists, and how to move objects safely
- Ensure that only formally trained and certified employees may operate a crane or hoist
- Enforce the use of safe lifting techniques
- Maintain lifting equipment in good mechanical and operating condition
A Berkeley Lab employee must be identified as the Crane Manager for each Berkeley Lab-owned crane or hoist, unless it is locked out.
- Identifies oneself, in writing, as the Crane Manager to the Environment, Health & Safety (EH&S) Division Crane Safety Subject Matter Expert (SME) at email@example.com or Mail Stop 75B0101
- Possesses a valid certificate for the operation of the crane in question
- Controls the use of the crane, and limits use of the crane to qualified operators
- Maintains control of any keys or other mechanisms for limiting crane use
- Maintains any logbooks used in lieu of inspection tags
- Limits crane use to previously authorized operators
- A qualified backup Crane Manager who has been identified to the Crane Safety SME may issue new crane authorizations in the absence of the Crane Manager.
- Notifies the EH&S Crane Safety SME (firstname.lastname@example.org, Mail Stop 75B0101) of any change
Employees (Operators, Riggers, and Helpers)
- Maintain training and medical qualification
- Safely operate cranes
- Possess a valid Berkeley Lab Crane Operator’s License
- Are certified by an independent certification agency as competent and qualified operators of mobile cranes with a greater-than-two-ton capacity
- Follows all established safety regulations related to safe lifting and handling techniques
Mechanical Engineering Designee
- Reviews and approves Engineering Safety Notes for lifting fixtures and high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves on behalf of the Engineering Division Director and for the Mechanical Engineering Subcommittee of the Safety Advisory Committee
- Approves reasonable engineering alternatives not in conflict with Berkeley Lab’s Environment, Safety & Health Standards Set
- Furnishes guidance to Berkeley Lab staff
- Incorporates the requirements of the Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety program into the design of lifting fixtures and procedures
- Initiates the required proof testing
- Obtains design approval by means of an Engineering Safety Note
- Defines and requests any lift/move
- Determines which lifts are high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
- Writes lifting procedures where required
- Provides technical information on relevant characteristics of the apparatus, including special lifting fixtures when required
- Assigns someone to represent the customer during planning and coordination of all aspects of the job being performed
- Provides suggestions on rigging and moving
- Ensures that lifting devices and lifting fixtures are properly documented and inspected, and that they are used and maintained safely
- Requests the Facilities Division to prepare the Engineering Safety Note, and to manage the move on the Work Request as needed
Facilities Division Structural Engineering Group Designee
- Evaluates building floor loading, lifting fixtures, and lifting devices for structural adequacy
- Reviews and approves Engineering Safety Notes for lifting fixtures, lifting devices, and high-consequence/high-value lifts on behalf of the Facilities Division and the Mechanical Engineering Subcommittee of the Safety Advisory Committee
- Establishes design parameters for all cranes and hoists
- Provides guidance on wind loading for outdoor lifts/moves
- Provides Berkeley Lab staff with guidance on lift-related matters
Facilities Division Rigging Supervisor
- Provides guidance and supervision for routine lifts when requested
- Participates in the development and review of high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
- Participates in pre-lift meetings
Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor
- Arranges for all inspection, testing, and certification of cranes, hoists, and rigging
- Arranges for the testing and certification of lifting devices and lifting fixtures
Facilities Division Maintenance Manager
- Establishes the scope of work for the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor
- Follows technical advice from the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor to ensure that Laboratory purchases of crane, hoist, and rigging equipment, components, and devices are traceable (through documentation) to a reputable U.S. manufacturer
EH&S Division Crane Safety SME
- Manages the Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety program
- Reviews Engineering Safety Notes for high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
- Conforms to Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety program requirements
- Participates in pre-lift meetings for high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
- Notifies the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor to lock all cranes and hoists that do not have an official Crane Manager
Person In Charge
The customer may be a manager, engineer, or other responsible person (other than the operator).
- Handles high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves in a safe manner
A machine used for lifting and lowering a load vertically and moving it horizontally, and that has a hoisting mechanism
A detailed description of a (fixture) design, or a detailed description of a high-consequence/high-value lift/move, including protection of the load, rigging, and method(s) of transport
- The customer’s designation for parts, components, assemblies, or lifting operations that could have the following consequences in the event of falling from a crane or colliding with other objects:
- Damages in excess of $500,000 (This does not apply to routine movements of shielding blocks performed by members of the professional rigging crew.)
- Significant work delays or programmatic impacts
- Undetectable damages resulting in future operational or safety problems
- A significant release of radioactivity or another undesirable condition
- A potentially unacceptable risk of personnel injury or property damage
- Any lift/move that requires the simultaneous use of both the main and auxiliary hoists of a given crane or the simultaneous use of two cranes
A device that applies a force for lifting and lowering
A device, other than a sling, used below the hoisting hook for attaching loads to a hoist. There are four types of lifting devices:
- Structural and mechanical lifting devices (e.g., spreader bars, plate clamps, gripping devices, etc.)
- Vacuum lifting devices
- Close proximity lifting magnets
- Remotely operated lifting magnets
A fixture used below the hoisting hook designed and engineered for lifting a specific item
A crane system fixed to a vehicle, typically a truck
A crane system fixed to a structure, including but not limited to bridge cranes, monorail cranes, gantry cranes, and jib cranes
- The hardware or equipment used to safely attach a load to a hook or lifting device
- The art or process of safely attaching a load to a hook by means of an adequately rated and properly applied sling and related hardware
27.6 Required Work Processes
Work Process A. General Requirements for Crane Operation
The work flowchart below provides a step-by-step overview of crane and hoist operations requirements (go here to download a PDF of the flowchart):
The following rules apply to all use of crane and hoist operations at Berkeley Lab.
- Whoever needs to move a load must:
- First determine the value of the load and consequences of a failed move
- Determine if the load needs to be moved by a crane
- Determine who can operate the crane
- Loads meeting the definition of High-Consequence/High-Value Lifts/Moves or other restricted operations (see Work Process D) require more detailed planning and may require the lift to be performed by the Facilities Division Riggers.
- Operators must be authorized by Line Management to use cranes.
- Operators must be authorized by the Crane Manager to use a specific crane.
- Operators must be qualified to use the type of crane they intend to use.
- Operators must plan each lift, taking into account the path of travel to avoid contact with personnel and objects.
- Loads meeting the definition of High-Consequence/High-Value Lifts/Moves or other restricted operations (see Work Process B) require more detailed planning and may require the lift to be performed by the Facilities Division Riggers.
- Operators must inspect the crane and associated rigging prior to using the crane.
- Cranes and rigging found to be deficient must be taken out of service, and cannot be used unless repaired and recertified by the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor.
- Cranes and rigging must be rated to lift the intended load; no load (including rigging, devices, and lifting fixtures) may exceed the limits of the crane and rigging. If an employee is unsure of the weight of a load, or if the load weight exceeds 75% of the crane’s capacity, contact the Facilities Division Rigging Supervisor for assistance. Crane testing by the Facilities Division Crane Service contractor is the only exception to this rule.
- Operators are responsible for ensuring that the load is properly rigged to avoid shifting during the lift. Test lifts of less than one foot from the ground to check for load shifting are permitted.
- All personnel who are operating a crane or hoist, are participating in the lift, or are located within 15 feet of the vertical plane of the load — where the undercarriage of the bridge is more than 12 feet from the ground — must wear hard hats. Post or barricade the area as needed.
- Sturdy work gloves must be worn when handling wire rope or loads with rough or sharp edges or splinters.
These rules apply to operators of suspended loads:
- Test brakes under load when load is 80% of the crane's rated load. Raise the load a few inches and apply the brakes.
- Ensure loads are never lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum.
- Do not allow hoisting chains or ropes to kink or twist, or to wrap around the load.
- Attach the load to the load block hook ONLY by means of slings or other approved devices; NEVER wrap the hoist rope around the load.
- Ensure loads are well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
- Avoid suddenly accelerating or decelerating the moving load.
- Do not allow the load to contact obstructions.
- Do not allow loads moved with any material-handling equipment to pass over any personnel.
- Select the load path to eliminate the possibility of injury to employees should the material-handling equipment fail.
- Do not permit work on suspended loads. Rest the load on adequate cribbing if it needs to be worked on.
- Never leave a suspended load unattended nor leave the controls while the load is suspended. Lower the load to the floor or the working surface or onto cribbing, and secure the material-handling equipment before leaving the load unattended.
Component Failure or Unintended Movement
If any component fails during a lift, or if there is any uncontrolled or unintended motion of the load during the lift, the lift must be terminated immediately in the safest manner possible. Immediately notify the Crane Manager of the component failure. Contact EH&S and the Facilities Division Rigging Supervisor.
Lifting may only resume after the failure or unintended motion has been investigated, and appropriate corrective steps have been implemented.
Any electric-powered crane, when not attended by a qualified operator during an entire shift and off-hours, must be secured by locked controls or equivalent means to prevent access to the crane, such as locking the doors or locking up radio controls. Only the Crane Manager or another qualified and authorized user of the secured crane may have control of the locking mechanism.
Work Process B. Procurement and Maintenance of Cranes and Hoisting and Rigging Equipment
Approval from the Facilities Division Maintenance Manager must be obtained before purchasing hoists or cranes, or lifting equipment such as shackles, clevises, wire rope or fabric slings, or spreader bars (strongbacks). Procurement will not process any purchase orders for such equipment without this approval. The preferred method for ordering hoisting and rigging equipment is to request that the Facilities Division Maintenance Manager or designee (ext. 7667) order the items, using an account number provided by the requester.
If used equipment is procured, it must be inspected and certified to meet all applicable standards in force at the time of the acquisition.
For Berkeley Lab—designed and/or fabricated lifting devices, see Work Process G.
When equipment is received, the recipient must contact the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor (ext. 7667 or email@example.com) to have the equipment inventoried for routine inspection and maintenance. All hoisting and rigging equipment (except when impractical, e.g., shackles, swivel lifting rings, etc.) used at the Laboratory must have a Laboratory proof-load tag attached with a current inspection sticker. The user, supervisor, and operator are directly responsible for verifying the presence of current, proper tagging of hoisting and rigging equipment prior to use.
Work Process C. Authorization and Qualification to Use Cranes
All crane use must be authorized by an employee’s Job Hazards Analysis (JHA), and by the Crane Manager for the particular crane(s) to be operated. The Crane Manager is a qualified crane operator who has been designated as the individual responsible for the safe operation of a specific crane. Before operating a crane in an area for the first time or in a new application, employees must discuss the proposed crane use with the Crane Manager and obtain approval. The Crane Manager will determine whether the operator is familiar with the controls for that particular crane and knows how to properly rig loads, and will verify that crane use will not conflict with other operations in the area.
Cranes may also be operated by qualified Crane Service personnel who have been authorized by either a JHA (for the on-site Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor) or a SWJHA, and have been subcontracted to install, maintain, or repair cranes.
Qualifications, Training, Certification, and Approval Requirements for Overhead Crane and Hoist Operators
The operation of overhead cranes and hoists is restricted to trained personnel who have completed Berkeley Lab—required training, and who have been certified in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. This includes the operation of cranes without a load for any reason. Requirements for operating mobile cranes can be found in Work Process F.
To become certified for operating cranes up to a two-ton capacity, the following requirements must be met:
- All prospective operators of cranes and hoists up to a two-ton capacity must meet the health requirements that would entitle them to operate a motor vehicle in the state of California. Individuals who do not hold a valid driver’s license must be examined and approved by Health Services at Berkeley Lab.
- The prospective operator must complete EHS0210, Crane/Hoist Operator — 2 Tons or Less. This course includes hands-on instruction, and a certificate will be issued after the successful completion of the course.
Note that crane and hoist operators with this certification may NOT operate cranes or hoists with a capacity of greater than two tons to lift loads of less than two tons or without any load.
To become certified for operating overhead cranes or hoists with a capacity of greater than two tons, the following is required:
- All prospective crane operators must complete an application and must pass a medical examination and/or review of medical information on file at Health Services prior to training. The application must identify a qualified crane operator who will provide hands-on instruction and close supervision during an initial training period. The supervisor and the operator who will provide the instruction must sign the application and agree to the initial training. If the prospective operator has prior experience operating cranes, he or she may be examined and certified without an initial training period.
- The prospective operator must complete EHS0206 (Crane/Hoist Operator — Greater than 2 Tons). Upon completion of this classroom training, a learner’s permit is issued when needed, and the individual may operate cranes and hoists under the direct supervision of the operator identified on the application. The learner’s permit will expire no later than 60 days from the date of issuance.
- When the prospective operator is ready, he or she may contact an overhead-crane practical-examination instructor to be examined on the operation of the specific crane to be operated most frequently. A list of qualified overhead-crane practical-examination instructors is maintained by the EH&S Division Training Group.
Crane operators must renew their training every three years, and must be medically recertified every three years.
Work Process D. Restricted Operations
High-Consequence/High-Value Lifts and Moves
The customer (i.e., the manager who requires the items to be moved) or a program organization designates parts, components, assemblies, or lifting operations as high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves, because the effect of those items falling from the crane, or colliding with other objects, could:
- Cause damage in excess of $500,000
- This requirement does not apply to routine movements of shielding blocks performed by members of the professional rigging crew.
- Cause significant work delay or programmatic impact
- Cause undetectable damage resulting in future operational or safety problems
- Result in significant release of radioactivity or other undesirable conditions
- Present a potentially unacceptable risk of personnel injury or property damage
In addition, any lift/move that requires the simultaneous use of both the main and auxiliary hoists of a given crane or the simultaneous use of two cranes must be considered a high-consequence/high-value lift/move.
High-Consequence/High-Value Lift/Move Requirements
A detailed, step-by-step procedure in the form of an Engineering Note must be prepared for each high-consequence/high-value lift/move. This requirement covers lifts and moves performed with forklifts or cranes. An Engineering Note template may be obtained from the Engineering Division at https://dcc.lbl.gov/dcc/EngNotes.php. While high-consequence/high-value lift procedures are customarily prepared for one-time use, general high-consequence/high-value lift procedures may be employed to accomplish routine, recurrent high-consequence/high-value lift operations. For example, a general high-consequence/high-value lift procedure may be applied to lift shielding blocks or a frequently lifted item. Examples can be found through the search page of the Berkeley Lab Engineering Note Repository at https://dcc.lbl.gov/dcc/EngNotes.php (enter the keywords “high value” in the Title 3 field).
The customer, i.e., the Laboratory manager who requires the item to be moved, is responsible for preparing the high-consequence/high-value lift/move Safety Engineering Note. The customer can discharge this responsibility by indicating on the Facilities Work Request that the scope of work should include preparation of the Engineering Safety Note and management of the move. It is the responsibility of the customer to notify all personnel whose approval is required early in the process. See High-Consequence/High-Value Move Lift/Move Approval below.
Approvers have special expertise and are available to provide guidance during the design of the lifting procedure. Please allow sufficient time for the review-and-approval process. There is no charge for the review-and-approval process.
The procedure must contain the following:
- Identification of the item to be moved
- Identification of the Laboratory manager or engineer who is responsible for planning the lift
- Identification of the rigging supervisor or designated qualified rigger (other than the equipment operator) who will be the Person In Charge (PIC) of all aspects of the lift while the load is suspended
- Special precautions
- Weight of the item
- Total hook load (all component parts of the item plus tackle and load-measuring devices)
- Determination of the center of gravity
- A list of each piece of equipment and each accessory (e.g., slings, spreader bars, yokes) to be used in the lift
- Each accessory must be identified by type and rated capacity
- If a portable item to be used has no manufacturer’s serial number, a Berkeley Lab identification number must be assigned and affixed to the item
- Surveillance procedures, checkpoints, and estimated instrument readings (if used) must be listed to enable confirmation that the lift is proceeding as planned
- Calculation of stresses to be generated in the item during lifting and determination of the adequacy and proper labeling of the attachment points of the item to be lifted.
- A rigging sketch or sketches that include the following:
- Lifting points
- Load vectors at all stages of the lift/move
- Sling angles at all stages of the lift/move
- Accessories used
- Method(s) of attachment
- Method of rotating about either horizontal axis, if applicable
- Other factors affecting the capacity of the equipment or accessories
- Identification of the capacity (or limit) of equipment and load
- Identification of the expected load in each item of equipment and each accessory
- A load-path sketch of the load path with the expected height of the load at each point in the lift
- Where appropriate, floor loading diagrams are to be included to provide for setting the load down at any point in the path if that should be necessary.
- A travel sketch, either as a part of the load-path sketch or a separate sketch, indicating the planned travel path, and lifting and travel speeds
- Where clearances are an issue, a detailed drawing with verified dimensions that demonstrates the lift can be accomplished as planned
- An assessment of wind loading and weather concerns for all outdoor work
- Obtain assistance from the Facilities Division Structural Engineering Group for wind loading concerns.
- A checklist detailing each step of the procedure, with each step initialed by the Laboratory manager or engineer responsible for the planning of the lift
- A sign-off sheet where all personnel involved in the lift verify that they are familiar with the contents of the procedure
- Load tests and practice lifts, if required
- Verification that all primary and secondary hoisting equipment is within the current inspection and test time requirements as specified in this chapter (for example, yearly periodic inspections and certification)
High-Consequence/High-Value Lift/Move Approval
The procedure must be reviewed and approved by:
- Customer management
- The Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department Designee
- The Facilities Department Structural Engineering Group
- The Facilities Department Rigging Supervisor
- The EH&S Division Designee
All reviewers should be consulted early in the process to ensure their concerns are addressed, avoiding the need for later revisions to the procedure.
Unanticipated conditions may require on-the-spot changes of the lift procedure. Approvers of the lift procedure should be present during the lift or at least immediately available to approve changes. Changes must be recorded on the procedure and initialed by all available approvers before they are implemented.
Personnel Participating in High-Consequence/High-Value Lifts/Moves
Each person involved in a high-consequence/high-value lift/move must be familiar with the procedure before beginning work. A pre-lift meeting with all participating personnel must be held before the lift. All participating personnel must initial the procedure sign-off sheet to verify that they are familiar with the procedure.
Operation of cranes from a cab is restricted to professional riggers. The following rules apply to cab-operated cranes:
- Do not store personal belongings (including necessary clothing) in a manner that interferes with operations.
- Store other necessary equipment (tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, etc.) in the toolbox. Do not store equipment loosely in or about the cab.
Heavy lifts should be made by the professional rigging crew that performs such work routinely. Where there is a need for other personnel to lift loads over 10,000 lb., and lifts exceeding 75% of the cranes maximum capacity, the proposed lift must be reviewed with and approved informally by the supervisor of the professional rigging crew or his or her designee.
Using a crane to tilt a load (standing up a load that is lying down or vice versa) carries a significant risk of shock-loading the crane or losing control of the load. When such operations involve loads that exceed 50% of the rated capacity of the crane, they must be reviewed by and may be performed only with the informal approval of the supervisor of the professional rigging crew or his or her designee. If two hooks are required to tilt the load, follow the high-consequence/high-value lift procedures listed above.
Work Process E. Mobile Cranes
The operation of mobile cranes is restricted to those who have been certified as competent and qualified mobile crane operators by an independent certification agency. The Facilities Division Riggers have authorized and qualified mobile crane operators.
Mobile crane operations for construction have additional requirements, which are found in PUB-3000, Chapter 10. For the purpose of the Berkeley Lab Cranes, Hoisting, and Rigging Program, small truck-mounted jib cranes with capacities of less than 2 tons are not considered mobile cranes. Mobile crane operations are conducted in accordance with all applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (and Cal/OSHA for construction) requirements.
Any mobile crane, when not attended by a qualified operator during an entire shift or during off-hours, must be secured by locked controls or equivalent means to prevent access to the crane, such as locking the doors or locking up radio controls. Only the Crane Manager or another qualified and authorized user of the secured crane may have control of the locking mechanism.
Work Process F. Crane Inspections
Each crane or hoist must be inspected by a qualified crane operator before use, during any given work shift. The inspection can be documented either on a tag attached to the crane controls or in a log that is kept with the key to the crane controls. If the crane is not used during any shift, it does not need to be inspected. However, each crane must be given a documented operator inspection at least once a month whether or not it is used during the month of the inspection. Inspection tags will be collected by the Facilities Division Crane and Hoist Services Contractor and kept on record. Where applicable, crane inspection logs will be reviewed by the Crane and Hoist Services Contractor. Typical crane inspection checklists are shown in Appendix A of this PUB-3000 chapter.
All other required equipment inspections and tests are performed by the Facilities Division Crane and Hoist Services Contractor. Equipment and the frequency of equipment inspections and tests are listed in a Facilities Division database as required by applicable regulations and/or standards. Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor work orders are automatically generated monthly and are based on information in the database.
Work Process G. Rigging and Other Below-the-Hook Devices and Fixtures
The crane operator is responsible for verifying that the load is properly rigged. The crane operator must also take the following precautions when performing work:
- Thoroughly inspect rigging before use (document the inspection on the Daily Crane Inspection Tag).
- Remove defective rigging from service. DO NOT USE and DO NOT REPAIR defective rigging.
- All other required rigging inspections and tests are performed by the Facilities Division Crane and Hoist Services Contractor. The frequency of these various inspections and tests are detailed in Facilities Division work orders.
- Only use slings in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
- Use engineered attachment points and standard hardware (swivel lift rings, shackles, and nylon slings) wherever possible.
- Verify that all slings and hardware are rated for more than the expected load and are appropriate for the intended type of load and configuration.
- Verify that all slings and special lifting hardware have current Berkeley Lab inspection tags.
- Never shorten slings with knots, bolts, or other makeshift devices.
- Never load rigging in excess of its rated capacities.
- Use padding to protect natural fiber or synthetic slings from damage (e.g., contact with sharp edges).
- Verify loads are balanced to prevent slippage (e.g., when using a basket hitch).
- Remove slings from a load when the load is not resting on the sling.
- Contact the EH&S Crane and Hoist Subject Matter Expert (firstname.lastname@example.org) or the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor (ext. 7667) before rigging is used in any manner or environment (e.g., used in close proximity with corrosives or degrading chemicals, operated in temperature extremes of –20°F or +180°F, etc.) that may compromise its construction or strength.
Inspection and Testing of Lifting Devices
Each division is responsible for the safety and pre-use inspection of its lifting devices (such as screw pin shackles, hoist rings, commercial equipment, etc.) and for its lifting fixtures (such as spreader bars, special slings, equipment designed at Berkeley Lab, etc.). Berkeley Lab proof-load tags and inspection stickers must be current, where applicable. Special-purpose lifting fixtures must be marked with a Laboratory equipment number and labeled to identify applicable Engineering Safety Notes for fixture design and/or high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves.
All lifting fixtures designed at the Laboratory must be proof-tested to twice their maximum rated loads before being placed in service. A Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) is required after the proof test. The exact type of NDE must be specified in the Engineering Safety Note for the lifting fixture. The rated capacity must be marked on the lifting fixture so that it is clearly visible to the equipment operator.
Order commercially available lifting fixtures through the Facilities Division Maintenance Manager or Designee to assure they are ordered with a certificate of proof load testing. For commercial lifting fixtures without certified load ratings, an Engineering Safety Note must be written to determine the safe load capacity and furnish guidance for load testing.
Where the lifting fixture cannot be proof-tested because it is an integral part or component of the experimental device, equivalent alternative safety precautions acceptable to the Mechanical Engineering designee must be described in the Engineering Safety Note, which delineates the lift procedure.
All lifting device pins of 5 cm (2 in.) in diameter or larger must have a magnetic-particle inspection before they are placed in service. These pins are always part of a lifting device or fixture. Make arrangements with the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor, ext. 7667, or the Work Request Center, ext. 6274, to have lifting fixtures inspected.
Active lifting devices and fixtures must be examined by an NDE at least once every four years (or upon request), using magnetic-particle detection or other appropriate methods. Make arrangements to have lifting fixtures inspected with the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor, ext. 7667, or contact the Work Request Center, ext. 6274. Records must be maintained by the Facilities Division and NDE organizations. Inactive lifting devices and fixtures must be clearly marked “STOP: DO NOT USE,” and must be load tested and certified prior to renewed use.
The Responsible User must ensure that:
- Proof-testing is performed by the Facilities Division on all lifting fixtures designed at the Laboratory, before they are placed in service
- Adequate test records are kept
- Lifting devices and fixtures are used and maintained correctly
The Responsible Designer must obtain design approval by means of an Engineering Safety Note, as described below. For equipment designed at the Laboratory, the Responsible Designer must provide the user with the information required to operate the lifting device or fixture safely. The Facilities Division will provide a test report to the user upon request.
Design of Lifting Fixtures
A qualified engineer must be designated to be responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of lifting fixtures not purchased commercially. The actual physical testing usually will be performed by the Facilities Division in accordance with the written test procedure specified by the Project Engineer.
All lifting fixtures designed or fabricated at the Laboratory must be covered by an Engineering Safety Note. The Engineering Safety Note must include the calculation of lifting fixture stresses and deflections, and must be reviewed and approved by:
- The Responsible Designer
- Customer Management
- The Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department designee
- The Facilities Division Planning, Design & Construction Department, Structural Engineering Group designee
- The Facilities Division Plant Operations Department Rigging Supervisor
- The EH&S Division designee
The design stress for lifting fixtures or lifting attachment points must not exceed one-fifth the ultimate strength of the material at its operating temperature. If welded fabrication is used, the design stress must take into consideration any weakening effects of welding, such as those that occur in aluminum alloys.
If practical, avoid welding in the fabrication of lifting fixtures. If welding must be used, design and fabrication in conformance with the latest standards of the American Welding Society (AWS) are required. Careful, thoughtful design and follow-up are required.
Follow these rules for all lifting fixtures:
- All welds in lifting fixtures must be certified welds, performed by certified welders, and inspected and certified by certified weld inspectors.
- If at all possible, do not allow welds to be subjected to tearing loads. Stresses in welds must be substantially uniform.
- Where possible, design lifting fixtures so that the main loads are carried only by structural members, plates, or shear pins rather than by welds. Examine this possibility carefully.
- Proof-test lifting fixtures to twice the maximum rated load. Follow by a nondestructive examination. X-ray primary load-carrying welds and welds in tension, or perform other suitable subsurface crack-detection examinations.
- The screw-thread engagement required for conservative development of the full strength of a screw fastener depends upon the screw-fastener material and the material of the threaded member.
- If the fastener is made of the same material as the female threaded member — e.g., a low-carbon steel bolt and a hole threaded into low-carbon steel — an engagement of at least 1½ diameters is required.
- A hardened steel screw (Allen screw) in mild steel requires at least 2 diameters of engagement.
- A low-carbon screw fastener, threaded into a tapped hole in aluminum alloy, copper, or cast iron must have a threaded engagement of 1½ diameters.
- Other material combinations must be approved by the Mechanical Engineering Department designee.
- Safety hoist rings may be used to make lifts up to their rated load when screwed 2 hoist-ring bolt diameters into materials such as aluminum alloy, copper, or cast iron.
- When special high-strength bolts are required, test any bolt used as part of Laboratory-designed lifting fixtures or pickup devices to two times its rated load. A crack-detection inspection must be performed after the load test to ensure integrity. Try to maintain a supply of tested bolts in the event that one is lost, or better yet, to have the bolt on a permanent lanyard. Once a lifting device or fixture has been delivered to the user, the user is responsible for ensuring that the proper bolt is inserted to the proper depth and correctly torqued.
- When the lifting fixture also serves as a shipping container or frame holding the experimental device during transport, specify tie-down requirements and other special shipping requirements to ensure the integrity of the experimental device, e.g., anticipate flexing of the truck bed, acceleration due to bumps and potholes, and/or vibration.
- Label lifting attachment points adequately to ensure proper and safe use of the fixture.
Any deviation from these rules requires equivalent alternative safety measures that have been explicitly approved by the Mechanical Engineering Department designee.
Single-Bolt Pickup Devices
When equipment is designed to be crane-lifted at a single point with a single-bolt pickup device, the vertical lifting load through the screw thread of the bolt must be in line with the axis of the bolt so the load will remain level when it is lifted. With this bolt alignment, the lift will be through the center of gravity and will be safer, since the load will not tilt or kick out when it is lifted. A single-bolt pickup device must be used, such as a safety hoist ring or an equivalent in-house device that is carefully designed and maintained. The threaded engagement must comply with the requirements in the Design of Lifting Fixtures section, above.
When a load is to be crane-lifted by slings from a crane hook through two, three, or four pickup points located at the corners of the load, and without the use of a spreader bar, the forces at the lift points are nonvertical. Again, a single-bolt pickup device, such as a safety hoist ring or an equivalent in-house device that is carefully designed and maintained must be used at each pickup point.
Eyebolts without shoulders are not allowed for use in lifting any load. Eyebolts with shoulders are permitted for lifting loads when the following conditions are met:
- These devices shall be rated for the load and approved for the application, e.g., a carbon steel eyebolt rated at 1,500 lb. Threaded into a carbon steel block.
- The load is in line with the axis of the eyebolt, and side loads are minimal (a spreader bar may be required).
- The thread engagement is at least 2 bolt diameters. The eyebolts are torqued to a manufacturer’s recommendations, if given, or another reasonable torque substantially greater than finger tight. Angled sling usage is allowable if a manufacturer’s recommendations for load reduction are given.
The use of unrated eyebolts or eyebolts in applications not specifically approved by the manufacturer must be specifically approved by an Engineering Safety Note.
29 CFR 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry, Subpart N — Materials Handling and Storage, Paragraphs:
1910.179, Overhead and Gantry Crane
1910.180, Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes
29 CFR 1926, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Construction, 1926 Subpart CC, Paragraph 1926.251, Rigging Equipment for Material Handling
California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Subchapter 4, Construction Safety Orders (as it pertains to cranes used in construction work)
27.8 Related PUB-3000 Chapters
- ASME HST-1M, PerformanceStandard for Electric Chain Hoists
- ASME HST-2M, Performance Standard for Hand Chain Manually Operated Chain Hoists
- ASME HST-3M, Performance Standard for Manual Lever Operated Chain Hoists
- ASME HST-4M, Performance Standard for Electric Overhead Wire Rope Hoists
- ASME HST-5M, Performance Standard for Air Chain Hoists
- ASME HST-6M, Performance Standard for Air Wire Rope Hoists
- Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. (CMAA) Specification No. 61, Electric Overhead Traveling (EOT) Cranes
- CMAA Specification No. 70, Specifications for Top Riding Bridge and Gantry Type Multiple Girder Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes
- CMAA Specification No. 74, Specification for Top Running and Under Running Single Girder Electric Traveling Cranes Utilizing Under Running Trolley Hoists
- DOE-STD-1090-2004, Hoisting & Rigging
Appendix A. Typical Pre-use Inspection Tag
Figure A-1. Front of Daily Crane Inspection Tag
Figure A-2. Back of Daily Crane Inspection Tag
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