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Environment, Health, & Safety Division

Appendix B

Pathogen and Toxin Lists


B.1    Introduction and Scope

Pathogens and toxins are discussed in detail in Section 3.3.2 of this manual. This appendix provides the following lists of biological agents and toxins presented in Section 3.3.2:

  • Human etiologic agents (pathogens) from Appendix B of the NIH Guidelines
  • Select agents and toxins from the National Select Agent Registry (NSAR)
  • Plant pathogens previously identified by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

These lists are provided for convenience in this manual, but may not reflect the actual regulatory list or applicable agents or materials at any given time. Regulatory sources, standards, and Web links noted in this appendix and Section 3.3.2 should be consulted to confirm applicable agents or toxins.

B.2    NIH Guidelines Human Etiologic Agents

This section provides a list of human pathogens and their Risk Group (RG) 2, RG3, and RG4 designations as excerpted from Appendix B (Classification of Human Etiologic Agents on the Basis of Hazard) of the NIH Guidelines, Amendment Effective September 22, 2009.

B.2.1 Risk Group 1 Agents

RG1 agents are not associated with disease in healthy adult humans. Examples of RG1 agents include asporogenic Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus licheniformis (see Appendix C-IV-A, Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus licheniformis Host-Vector Systems, Exceptions); adeno-associated virus (AAV) Types 1 through 4; and recombinant AAV constructs, in which the transgene does not encode either a potentially tumorigenic gene product or a toxin molecule and which are produced in the absence of a helper virus. A strain of Escherichia coli (see Appendix C-II-A, Escherichia coli K-12 Host Vector Systems, Exceptions) is an RG1 agent if it 1) does not possess a complete lipopolysaccharide (i.e., lacks the O antigen); and 2) does not carry any active virulence factor (e.g., toxins) or colonization factors and does not carry any genes encoding these factors.

Those agents not listed in RGs 2, 3, and 4 are not automatically or implicitly classified in RG1; a risk assessment must be conducted based on the known and potential properties of the agents and their relationship to agents that are listed.

B.2.2 Risk Group 2 Agents

RG2 agents are associated with human disease that is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

Risk Group 2 Bacterial Agents Including Chlamydia

  • Acinetobacter baumannii (formerly Acinetobacter calcoaceticus)
  • Actinobacillus
  • Actinomyces pyogenes (formerly Corynebacterium pyogenes)
  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Amycolata autotrophica
  • Archanobacterium haemolyticum (formerly Corynebacterium haemolyticum)
  • Arizona hinshawii - all serotypes
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. vinsonii
  • Bordetella including B. pertussis
  • Borrelia recurrentis, B. burgdorferi
  • Burkholderia (formerly Pseudomonas species) (except those listed in Appendix B-III-A (RG3))
  • Campylobacter coli, C. fetus, C. jejuni
  • Chlamydia psittaci, C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae
  • Clostridium botulinum, Cl. chauvoei, Cl. haemolyticum, Cl. histolyticum, Cl. novyi, Cl. septicum, Cl. tetani
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. pseudotuberculosis, C. renale
  • Dermatophilus congolensis
  • Edwardsiella tarda
  • Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  • Escherichia coli - all enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive and strains bearing K1  
  • antigen, including E. coli O157:H7
  • Haemophilus ducreyi, H. influenzae
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Klebsiella: All species except K. oxytoca (RG1)
  • Legionella including L. pneumophila
  • Leptospira interrogans: All serotypes
  • Listeria
  • Moraxella
  • Mycobacterium (except those listed in Appendix B-III-A (RG3)) including M. avium complex, M. asiaticum, M.bovis BCG vaccine strain, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii, M. leprae, M. malmoense, M. marinum, M.paratuberculosis, M. scrofulaceum, M. simiae, M. szulgai, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi
  • Mycoplasma, except M. mycoides and M. agalactiae,which are restricted animal pathogens
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis
  • Nocardia asteroides, N. brasiliensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. transvalensis
  • Rhodococcus equi
  • Salmonella including S. arizonae, S. cholerasuis, S. enteritidis, S. gallinarum-pullorum, S. meleagridis, S.paratyphi, A, B, C, S. typhi, S. typhimurium
  • Shigella including S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, type 1, S. flexneri, S. sonnei
  • Sphaerophorus necrophorus
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptobacillus moniliformis
  • Streptococcus including S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes
  • Treponema pallidum, T. carateum
  • Vibrio cholerae, V. parahemolyticus, V. vulnificus
  • Yersinia enterocolitica

Risk Group 2 Fungal Agents

  • Blastomyces dermatitidis
  • Cladosporium bantianum, C. (Xylohypha) trichoides
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Dactylaria galopava (Ochroconis gallopavum)
  • Epidermophyton
  • Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis
  • Fonsecaea pedrosoi
  • Microsporum
  • Paracoccidioides braziliensis
  • Penicillium marneffei
  • Sporothrix schenckii
  • Trichophyton

Risk Group 2 Parasitic Agents

  • Ancylostoma human hookworms including A. duodenale, A. ceylanicum
  • Ascaris including Ascaris lumbricoides suum
  • Babesia including B. divergens, B. microti
  • Brugia filaria worms including B. malayi, B. timori
  • Coccidia
  • Cryptosporidium including C. parvum
  • Cysticercus cellulosae (hydatid cyst, larva of T. solium)
  • Echinococcus including E. granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Enterobius
  • Fasciola including F. gigantica, F. hepatica
  • Giardia including G. lamblia
  • Heterophyes
  • Hymenolepis including H. diminuta, H. nana
  • Isospora
  • Leishmania including L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. ethiopia, L. major, L. mexicana, L. peruvania, L. tropica
  • Loa loa filaria worms
  • Microsporidium
  • Naegleria fowleri
  • Necator human hookworms including N. americanus
  • Onchocerca filaria worms including, O. volvulus
  • Plasmodium including simian species, P. cynomologi, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax
  • Sarcocystis including S. sui hominis
  • Schistosoma including S. haematobium, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. mansoni, S. mekongi
  • Strongyloides including S. stercoralis
  • Taenia solium
  • Toxocara including T. canis
  • Toxoplasma including T. gondii
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Trypanosoma including T. brucei brucei, T. brucei gambiense, T. brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi
  • Wuchereria bancrofti filaria worms

Risk Group 2 Viruses

Adenoviruses, human: All types

Alphaviruses (togaviruses), group A arboviruses:

  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine strain TC-83
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis virus


  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (nonneurotropic strains)
  • Tacaribe virus complex
  • Other viruses as listed in BMBL


  • Bunyamwera virus
  • Rift Valley fever virus vaccine strain MP-12
  • Other viruses as listed in BMBL



Flaviviruses (togaviruses), group B arboviruses:

  • Dengue virus, serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4
  • Yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D
  • Other viruses as listed in BMBL

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses

Herpesviruses, except Herpesvirus simiae (monkey B virus) (see Appendix B-IV-D, Risk Group 4 (RG4) – Viral Agents):

  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein Barr virus
  • Herpes simplex, types 1 and 2
  • Herpes zoster
  • Human herpesvirus, types 6 and 7


  • Influenza viruses, types A, B, and C
  • Tick-borne orthomyxoviruses

Papovaviruses: All human papilloma viruses


  • Newcastle disease virus
  • Measles virus
  • Mumps virus
  • Parainfluenza viruses, types 1, 2, 3, and 4
  • Respiratory syncytial virus

Parvoviruses: Human parvovirus (B19)


  • Coxsackie viruses, types A and B
  • Echoviruses, all types
  • Polioviruses, all types, wild and attenuated
  • Rhinoviruses, all types

Poxviruses: All types except monkeypox virus (see Appendix B-III-D, Risk Group 3 (RG3)—Viruses and Prions) and restricted poxviruses including alastrim, smallpox, and whitepox (see BMBL Section V-L)

Reoviruses: All types including coltivirus, human rotavirus, and orbivirus (Colorado tick fever virus)


  • Rabies virus, all strains
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus (Laboratory-adapted strains including VSV-Indiana, San Juan, and Glasgow)

Togaviruses (see alphaviruses and flaviviruses): Rubivirus (rubella)

B.2.3   Risk Group 3 Agents

RG3 agents are associated with serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions may be available.

Risk Group 3 Bacterial Agents Including Rickettsia

  • Bartonella
  • Brucella including B. abortus, B. canis, B. suis
  • Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei, B. pseudomallei
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Mycobacterium bovis (except BCG strain, see Appendix B-II-A, Risk Group 2 (RG2) - Bacterial Agents Including Chlamydia), M. tuberculosis
  • Pasteurella multocida type B: "Buffalo" and other virulent strains
  • Rickettsia akari, R. australis, R. canada, R. conorii, R. prowazekii, R. rickettsii, R, siberica, R. tsutsugamushi, R. typhi (R. mooseri)
  • Yersinia pestis

Risk Group 3 Fungal Agents

  • Coccidioides immitis (sporulating cultures; contaminated soil)
  • Histoplasma capsulatum, H. capsulatum var. duboisii

Risk Group 3 Parasitic Agents

Risk Group 3 Viruses and Prions

Alphaviruses (Togaviruses), group A arboviruses:

  • Semliki Forest virus
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (except the vaccine strain TC-83, see Appendix B-II-D (RG2))
  • Other viruses as listed in BMBL


  • Flexal
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM) (neurotropic strains)


  • Hantaviruses including Hantaan virus
  • Rift Valley fever virus

Flaviviruses (togaviruses), group B arboviruses:

  • Japanese encephalitis virus
  • Yellow fever virus
  • Other viruses as listed in BMBL

Orthomyxoviruses: Influenza viruses 1918–1919 H1N1 (1918 H1N1), human H2N2 (1957–1968), and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 strains within the Goose/Guangdong/96-like H5 lineage (HPAI H5N1)

Poxviruses: Monkeypox virus

Prions: Transmissible spongioform encephalopathy (TME) agents (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and kuru agents) (see BMBL, for containment instruction)


  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2
  • Human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2
  • Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Rhabdoviruses: Vesicular stomatitis virus

B.2.4   Risk Group 4 Agents

RG4 agents are likely to cause serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are not usually available.

Risk Group 4 Bacterial Agents

Risk Group 4 Fungal Agents

Risk Group 4 Parasitic Agents

Risk Group 4 Viral Agents


  • Guanarito virus
  • Lassa virus
  • Junin virus
  • Machupo virus
  • Sabia

Bunyaviruses (Nairovirus): Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus


  • Ebola virus
  • Marburg virus

Flaviruses (Togaviruses), group B arboviruses: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex including Absetterov, Central European encephalitis, Hanzalova, Hypr, Kumlinge, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Russian spring-summer encephalitis viruses

Herpesviruses (alpha): Herpesvirus simiae (herpes B or monkey B virus)

Paramyxoviruses: Equine morbillivirus

Hemorrhagic fever agents and viruses as yet undefined

B.2.5   Animal Viral Etiologic Agents in Common Use

The following list of animal etiologic agents is appended to the list of human etiologic agents. None of these agents are associated with disease in healthy adult humans; they are commonly used in laboratory experimental work. A containment level appropriate for RG1 human agents is recommended for their use. For agents that are infectious to human cells, e.g., amphotropic and xenotropic strains of murine leukemia virus, a containment level appropriate for RG2 human agents is recommended.


  • Herpesviruses
  • Herpesvirus ateles
  • Herpesvirus saimiri
  • Marek's disease virus
  • Murine cytomegalovirus


  • Bovine papilloma virus
  • Polyoma virus
  • Shope papilloma virus
  • Simian virus 40 (SV40)


  • Avian leukosis virus
  • Avian sarcoma virus
  • Bovine leukemia virus
  • Feline leukemia virus
  • Feline sarcoma virus
  • Gibbon leukemia virus
  • Mason-Pfizer monkey virus
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus
  • Murine leukemia virus
  • Murine sarcoma virus
  • Rat leukemia virus

B.2.6   Murine Retroviral Vectors

Murine retroviral vectors to be used for human transfer experiments (less than 10 liters) that contain less than 50% of their respective parental viral genome and that have been demonstrated to be free of detectable replication competent retrovirus can be maintained, handled, and administered under Biosafety Level (BL) 1 containment.

B.3    Select Agents and Toxins

imageTable B-1 provides the list of select agents and toxins on the National Select Agent Registry (NSAR) established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The most-recent online list may be found at Listed select agents and toxins are categorized as follows:

  • Agents and toxins that cause disease in humans are listed by HHS CDC as:
    • HHS select agents and toxins that affect humans
    • OVERLAP select agents and toxins that affect both (or OVERLAP with) humans and animals
  • Agents and toxins that cause disease in agricultural animals or plants are listed by USDA as:
    • OVERLAP select agents and toxins that affect humans and animals
    • USDA select agents and toxins that affect animals
    • USDA Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) select agents and toxins that affect plants

Table B-1
National Select Agent Registry Select Agents and Toxins

HHS and USDA Select Agents and Toxins
7 CFR Part 331, 9 CFR Part 121, and 42 CFR Part 73

HHS Select Agents and Toxins
Botulinum neurotoxins
Botulinum neurotoxin producing species of Clostridium
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B virus)
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin
Coccidioides posadasii/Coccidioides immitis
Coxiella burnetii
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus
Ebola virus
Francisella tularensis
Lassa fever virus
Marburg virus
Monkeypox virus
Reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments (Reconstructed1918 Influenza virus)
Rickettsia prowazekii
Rickettsia rickettsii
Shiga-like ribosome inactivating proteins
South American hemorrhagic fever viruses (Flexal, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia)
Staphylococcal enterotoxins
T-2 toxin
Tick-borne encephalitis complex (flavi) viruses (Central European tick-borne encephalitis, Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Russian Spring and Summer encephalitis)
Variola major virus (Smallpox virus)
Variola minor virus (Alastrim)
Yersinia pestis

OVERLAP Select Agents and Toxins
Bacillus anthracis
Brucella abortus
Brucella melitensis
Brucella suis
Burkholderia mallei (formerly Pseudomonas mallei)
Burkholderia pseudomallei (formerly Pseudomonas pseudomallei)
Hendra virus
Nipah virus
Rift Valley fever virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

USDA Select Agents and Toxins
African horse sickness virus
African swine fever virus
Akabane virus
Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic)
Bluetongue virus (exotic)
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent
Camel pox virus
Classical swine fever virus
Ehrlichia ruminantium (Heartwater)
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Goat pox virus
Japanese encephalitis virus
Lumpy skin disease virus
Malignant catarrhal fever virus
(Alcelaphine herpesvirus, Type 1)
Menangle virus
Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae
(contagious caprine pleuropneumonia)
Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (Mmm SC) (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)
Peste des petits ruminants virus
Rinderpest virus
Sheep pox virus
Swine vesicular disease virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus (exotic): Indiana subtypes VSV-IN2 and VSV-IN3
Virulent Newcastle disease virus1

USDA Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Select Agents and Toxins
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari)
Phoma glycinicola (formerly Pyrenochaeta glycines)
Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2
Rathayibacter toxicus
Sclerophthora rayssiae var zeae
Synchytrium endobioticum
Xanthomonas oryzae
Xylella fastidiosa (citrus variegated chlorosis strain)

Source: NSAR list updated 11/17/2008
 1A virulent Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 1) has an intracerebral pathogenicity index in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) of 0.7 or greater or has an amino acid sequence at the fusion (F) protein cleavage site that is consistent with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. A failure to detect a cleavage site that is consistent with virulent strains does not confirm the absence of a virulent virus.

Table B-2 provides additional information, permissible toxin amounts, and synonyms for biological toxins that are listed on the NSAR of select agents and toxins. A permissible toxin amount is the maximum quantity of biological toxin that can be under the control of a principal investigator at any time without regulation under the CDC and USDA select agent and toxin regulations.

Table B-2
Additional Information for National Select Agent Registry Toxins

(Permissible Toxin Amount)

Synonyms/Types (Strains)/ Key Words

CAS Numbers


(100 mg)

Abrina, Abrin B, Abrin C, Abrin D, Abrin reconstituted (A+B mix), Abrin agglutinin, Toxalbumin

1393-62-0 (Abrin)        53597-23-2 (Abrin A)
53597-24-3 (Abrin C)

A powerful phytotoxin present in the seeds of Abrus precatorius (common names include precatory bean, rosemary pea, and jequirity).

Botulinum neurotoxin
(0.5 mg)

Botulinum neurotoxin, Types A, B, C, C1, C2, D, E, F, and G (7 serotypes with a few subtypes). Clostridium botulinum toxin, botulinum toxin, botulinus toxin, botulin toxin

93384-43-1 (Type A)

Produced by the soil bacterium Clostridium botulinum under anaerobic conditions. The most potent toxin known but heat labile and neutralized by specific antibodies.

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin
(100 mg)

Clostridium perfringens Type B epsilon toxin; Clostridium perfringens, Type D epsilon toxin

None found

One of 12 protein toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Of the 5 types of Clostridium. perfringens, only 2 (Types B and D) make the epsilon neurotoxin.

(100 mg)

Conotoxins GI, GIA, GII, GIV, GIIIA, GIIIB, GIIIC, GIVA, GVIB, GVIC, Im1, MI,MVIIA,MVIIB, MVIIC,MVIIIv, MVIIDSIA, SVIB (plus more). Conus geographus venom, Conus magus venom, Conus straiatus venom

81133-24-6 (IV)
76862-65-2 (GI)
156467-85-5 (Im 1)
107452-89-1 (MVIIA) 
147794-23-8 (MVIIC)
150433-82-2 (SVIB)

Small peptide venoms produced by cone shells (Conidia) and marine snails (carnivorous gastropod “cone” mollusks). Venoms vary between species. Act on neuronal communications but each (alpha-mu-, and omega-conotoxins) target a different aspect of the process.

(1,000 mg)

Diacetoxyscirpenol; Anguidin; Auguidine; Insariotoxin; DAS; 4,15-Diacetoxyscirpen-3-OL; Scirpenetriol 4,15-diacetate; 4 beta, 15-diacetoxy-3-alpha-hydroxy-12, 13-epoxytrichotech-9-ene

4297-61-4 (3-A-acetyldiacetoxyscir-penol).

Trichothecene compound toxins (mycotoxins) produced by various fungus Fusarium, which grow on barley, corn, rye, wheat, etc.

(100 mg)

Ricinotoxin, Ricinus toxin, Ricin A, Ricin B, Ricin C, Ricin D, Ricin Toxin-Con A, Concanvalin A, Ricin nitrogen, Ricine, Ricin total hydrolysate, Ricinus lectin, Ricnus agglutinin

9009-86-3 (Ricin),
9040-12-4 (Ricin D)  72514-84-2 (Ricin D ananine chain)
66419-04-03 (Ricin D iso-leucine chain reduced)

A powerful phytotoxin present in the seeds of the castor bean oil plant (Ricinus communis).

(100 mg)

Mytilotoxin; Saxitoxin hydrate; Saxitoxin hydrochloride; Saxitoxin dihydrochloride; STX dihydrochloride; neo-Saxitoxin (neo-STX); Saxitoxin p-bromo benzenesulfonate; Mytilus californianus poison/toxin; Saxidomas giganteus poison/ toxin; Gonyaulas catenella poison/ toxin; Saxitonin diacetate salt

64296-20-4 (neo-STX from dinoflagellates)
220355-66-8 (Saxitoxin doacetate salt) 

Toxin produced by bacterium that grow in other organisms; e.g., poisonous mussels (Mytilus), clams (Saxidomas, and Plankton (Gonyaulax).

(100 mg)

Shigella dysenteria neurotoxin; shigella diysenteriae exotoxin Type I; Verocytotoxin; Verotoxin


Protein exotoxin produced by the bacterium Shigella dysenteriae that affects both the gut and the central nervous system.

Shiga-like-ribosome inactivating proteins
(100 mg)

A-chain portion of Shigella dysenteria Shigatoxin; Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli toxin SLT-1 and SLT-2; Escherichia coli 0157; H7 toxin

None found

Group of structurally-related toxins similar to shigatoxin that block cell protein synthesis.

Staphylococcal enterotoxin
(5.0 mg)

Staphylococcus enterotoxins types A,B,F. Enterotoxin F is the Toxic Shock Syndrome “Toxin-1.”

11100-45-1 (Enterotoxin B)

Toxin produced by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Acts on receptors in gut.

(100 mg)

Fugu poison; fugtoxin; Anhydroepiterodotoxin;  Deoxytetrodotoxin; 4-Deoxytetrodotoxin; Deoxyterttoxin;Diateylanhydrotetrdotoxin; Diacetate 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin; Ethoxytetrodotoxin; Maculotoxin; Ethyl tetrodotoxin; 4-Deoxy tetrodotoxin; Spheroidine; Tarichatoxin; 4-amino-4-deoxy, 4,9-Anhydrotetrodotoxin; 8,8-Diacetate 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin; tetrodotoxin citrate; TTX; (4-alpha)-4-amino-4-deoxy-tetrodotoxin

4368-28-9 (tetrodotoxin) 13072-89-4 (4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin)
13285-84-2 (8,8-diacetate 4,9-anhydro tetrodotoxin)
7724-38-1 [(4 alpha)-4-amino-4-deoxy-tetrodotoxin]
7724-41-6 (4-deoxy- tetrodotoxin)
18660-81-6 (Tetrodotoxin citrate salt)
[O(sup 4)- methyl tetrodotoxin]
7724-40-5 [O(sup 5)-ethyl tetrodotoxin]

Highly lethal neurotoxin present in numerous species of puffer fish (Tetraodontoidea) and newts (Tarika).

T-2 Toxin
(1000 mg)

Toxin T-2; T-2 mycotoxin; T-2 hemisuccinate; T-2 tetraol; T-2 Toxin d3; T-2 Triol; 2,4,5-T-2 ethylhexyl ester; 2,4,5-T-2 methylpropyl ester; Insariotoxin; 12,13-tricothecene; Fusariotoxine T-2; Scirpenol

21259-20-1 (T-2 Toxin) 
34114-99-3 (T-2 tetraol)
120467-83-6 (T-2 Toxind3)
34114-98-2 (T-2 triol)
1928-47-8 (2,4,5-T2 ethylhexyl ester)
4938-72-1 (2,4,5-T-2-methylproply ester)                 

Trichothecene compound toxins (mycotoxins) produced by various species of fungus Fusarium, which grows on barley, corn, rye, wheat.

Source: LBNL EH&S Group (July 2003).

B.4    Plant Pathogens

This appendix of the Biosafety Manual provides lists of bacterial, fungal, and viral plant pathogens that may be used to identify agents that might be considered plant pathogens. Current USDA Web sites and the USDA permit process may be needed to determine if the USDA considers agents in specific locations (e.g., California) to be plant pathogens.

B.4.1   Plant Pathogen Bacteria (by Scientific Name)

Agrobacterium radiobacter, Agrobacterium rubi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium vitis, Burkholderia andropogonis, Burkholderia caryophylli, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cichorii, Burkholderia corrugata, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. chrysanthemi, Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. dieffenbachiae, Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae, Erwinia tracheiphila, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii, Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. coronafaciens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans, Pseudomonas syringae pv. mori, Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato1, Ralstonia solanacearum2, Rhodococcus fascians, Spiroplasma citri, Streptomyces scabies, Xanthomonas campestris pv. armoraciae, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae, Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae, Xanthomonas campestris pv. hederae, Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis, Xanthomonas campestris pv. papavericola, Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii, Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. alfalfae, Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. begoniae, Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. glycines, Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli, Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens, Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

B.4.2   Plant Pathogen Fungi (by Scientific Name)


Physoderma maydis


Albugo candida, Peronospora sojae, Peronospora trifoliorum, Peronospora viticola, Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora fragariae, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora megasperma, Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. medicaginis, Phytophthora rubi s.sp. fragariae, Phytophthora sojae, Plasmodiophora brassicae, Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium arrhenomanes, Pythium graminicola, Pythium irregulare, Pythium ultimum, Sclerophthora macrospora.


Apiosporina morbosa (black knot), Botryosphaeria obtusa, Botryosphaeria ribis (B. dothidea, B. berengeriana), Claviceps purpurea, Cymadothea trifolii (sooty blotch), Diaporthe phaseolorum, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Gibberella zeae, Glomerella cingulata, Leptosphaerulina trifolii, Monilinia fructicola (Sclerotinia fructicola), Nectria cinnabarina, Ophiostoma ulmi (Ceratocystis ulmi), Pseudopeziza medicaginis, Pseudopeziza trifolii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Whetzelinia sclerotiorum), Sclerotinia trifoliorum, Valsa ambiens, Venturia inaequalis (apple scab), Xylaria polymorpha.

Powdery Mildews

Erysiphe graminis, Microsphaera vaccinii (on Ericaceae), Podosphaera clandestina (on Rosaceae), Sphaerotheca Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Scrophulariaceae), Sphaerotheca macularis (on hops and strawberry), Unicinula viticola.


Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum destructivum, Colletotrichum fragariae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum trifolii, Macrophomina phaseolina (Macrophoma phaseolina, M. phaseoli, Botryodiplodia phaseoli), Phoma medicaginis, Phomopsis juniperovora, Phomopsis sojae, Phomopsis viticola, Septoria rubi, Septoria tritici, Sphaeropsis sapinea (Diplodia pinea), Stagonospora nodorum (Septoria nodorum), Stenocarpelia maydis (Diplodia zeae, D. zeae-maydis).


Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani, Bipolaris maydis (Heminthosporium maydis, Drechslera maydis), Bipolaris sorokiniana (Helminthosporium sorokiniana, Drechslera sorokiniana), Bipolaris victoriae (Helminthosporium victoriae, Drechslera victoriae), Botrytis cinerea.
Cercospora medicaginis, Cercospora zeae-maydis, Cladosporium herbarum, Drechslera avenae (on oats, other grasses), Drechslera graminea (on barley, other grasses), Drechslera poae (on grasses), Drechslera teres (on barley, other grasses), Drechslera tritici-repentis (on cereals, other grasses), Exserohilum turcicum (Helminthosporium turcicum, Bipolaris turcicum), Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium roseum, Fusarium solani, Penicillium expansum, Rhynchosporium secalis, Thielaviopsis basicola, Verticillium albo-atrum, Verticillium dahliae.


Taphrina caerulescens (leaf blister on oak, Ostrya, Rhus), Taphrina communis (plum pocket on Prunus), Taphrina deformans (peach leaf curl).


Wood Rotters and Root-Collar Rotters

Armillaria mellea, Ceratobasidium cerealea, Daedaleopsis confragosa (Daedalea confragosa), Ganoderma applanatum (Fomes applanatus), Ganoderma lucidum, Hirschioporus pargamenus (Trichaptum biformis, Polyporus pargamenus), Laetiporus sulphureus (Polyporus sulphureus), Phellinus gilius, Phellinus robiniae, Schizophyllum commune, Stereum ostrea, Trametes versicolor (Polyporus versicolor, Coriolus versicolor).


Gymnosporangium clavipes (cedar-quince rust), Gymnosporangium globosum (cedar-hawthorn rust), Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae (cedar-apple rust), Puccinia coronata (on Rhamnaceae, Eleganaceae/Poaceae), Puccinia graminis (on Berberis/Poaceae), Puccinia recondita (on Ranunculaceae/Poaceae), Pucciniastrum americanum (late leaf rust on raspberry).


Tilletia caries (Tilletia tritici), Tilletia laevis (Tilletia foetida), Ustilago avenae, Ustilago hordei, Ustilago tritici, Ustilago zeae.

Other Basidiomycetes

Rhizoctonia solani (Thanatephorus cucumeris), Sclerotium rolfsii.

B.4.3   Plant Pathogen Viruses (Regulated by the State of California)

Alfalfa mosaic, barley yellow dwarf, bean common mosaic, bean yellow mosaic, beet curly top, beet mosaic, cactus virus X, camellia yellow mottle, carnation mottle, cauliflower mosaic, chrysanthemum mosaic, chrysanthemum virus B, cucumber mosaic, cymbidium mosaic, dasheen mosaic, fig mosaic, impatiens necrotic spot, lettuce big vein, lettuce mosaic, lily symptomless, maize dwarf mosaic, odontoglossum ringspot, papaya ringspot, pepper mottle, plum line pattern, potato leafroll, potato virus S, potato virus X, potato virus Y, prune dwarf, prunus necrotic ringspot, squash mosaic, sugarcane mosaic, tobacco etch, tomato mosaic, tomato spotted wilt, turnip mosaic, watermelon mosaic virus 2, zucchini yellow mosaic.