for Work and Hazards Identification to Define the Necessary and Sufficient Standards Set and Direct Appraisal Efforts

August 28, 1996


This report initially identifies the work activities and hazards that are present in the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) as part of the Integrated Hazard Assessment (IHA) process. Activities and hazards were identified in preparation for:

In late June 1996, a multi-disciplinary team of research and EH&S representatives from Berkeley Lab, Department of Energy (DOE) Oakland Operations, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was identified (note team listing below). Team members and contributors met to review available work activity and hazard information, identify hazards related to activities, field-check findings, and complete identification worksheets. Identification worksheet information was then entered into the IHA information management system and reviewed for quality. Identification worksheets were generally grouped by operations and research areas. Worksheets are available on the Berkeley Lab website.

The body of this report summarizes the IHA team participants, project time-line, AFRD organization and management, ES&H performance expectations and objectives, AFRD actions to be performed, AFRD physical conditions within which the work will be performed, AFRD materials and conditions that could cause adverse consequences, uncertainties about the work, EH&S resource availability and constraints, and stakeholder concerns.


Participant Technical Specialty
Ken Barat LBNL Laser Safety Officer
Cristine Celata AFRD Deputy Director and Safety Coordinator
Dick Dicely AFRD ES&H Administrator
Keith Gershon LBNL Safety Engineer and Team Leader
Harvey Grasso DOE Industrial Hygiene
Mark Lasartemay LBNL Waste Management
Steve Leeds LLNL Fire Prevention
Edwin Njoku DOE Health Physics
Henry Rutkowski AFRD Divisional Representitive
Pat Thorsen LBNL Environmental Protection


Date Activity
7/24/96 Preview meeting with AFRD program reps. Hazard survey forms distributed.
7/24/96 Establish Team Members
8/5/96 Collect and Review Information
8/6/96 Hazards Identification & Grouping
8/14/96 Field-Check Hazards Identification, Bldgs 58, 16
8/20/96 Field-Check Hazards Identification, Bldgs 6, 71
8/22/96Completion and Data Entry of Worksheets
8/28/96 Summary Report Draft


In order to ensure a broad-based employee involvement and an orderly flow of information, the AFRD ES&H program makes use of a committee structure that is organized into three functional levels:

  1. The AFRD Environment, Safety and Health Committee

  2. The Program Environment, Safety and Health Committees

  3. QUEST Teams and/or Supervisor / Employee Safety Circles (SESCs)

Involvement of line management is assured through the appropriate selection of committee chairs and memberships. The AFRD ES&H Committee is chaired by the Division Director, and membership includes all AFRD Program Heads. The active and visible support of all Program Heads is a major factor in the overall success of AFRD's Environment, Safety and Health Program. Each Program-level ES&H Committee is chaired by the Program Head, and a designated Program ES&H Coordinator is included in its membership.

In addition, there is an ES&H Operations Subcommittee, chaired by the Division Deputy, that reports to the parent AFRD ES&H Committee and provides operational oversight of the Division ES&H program. There are also Division Self-Assessment Teams, appointed by the Division Director, that serve as staff to the AFRD ES&H Committee and that play a key role in the Division's Self-Assessment Implementation Plan.


Research Program Management Responsibility for Safety

Line Management is responsible for the protection of the public, the workers, and the environment.

At the Berkeley Laboratory the following documents establish the policy and provide the implementation guidance that makes line management effectively accountable for protection of workers, the public, and the environment:

Clear Roles and Responsibilities

Clear and unambiguous lines of authority and responsibility for ensuring safety are established and maintained at all organizational levels within the Division and its contractors.

Each Division making up the Berkeley Laboratory has clearly defined lines of responsibility down to the working level. Each division designates a research investigator to represent its views and concerns on the Laboratory Safety Review Committee and a full time employee to act as the ES&H Coordinator. This Coordinator acts as the interface between ES&H concerns, compliance in the workplace, and the EH&S technical professionals. Organizational information is updated routinely and is retained in the Functional/Facility Notebooks as appropriate (see OAP).

Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities

Personnel possess the experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities that are necessary to discharge their responsibilities.

Job assignments, including hires, are reviewed by line management and by the compensation group within Human Resources to ensure that the requirements and responsibilities of a job are matched by the experience, knowledge, and skills of individuals selected for assignment. Performance expectations for managers and supervisors in the Division match the talents, knowledge, and skills of staff to work assignments and responsibilities.

The Laboratory's training program ensures that each staff member, including participating guests, is adequately trained to participate safely in Laboratory activities. Staff, with supervisor participation, fill out the Jobs Hazards Questionnaire (JHQ) describing the hazards associated with their job assignment and work area. Evaluation of the responses by the Training Coordinator and the cognizant supervisor determines the training regimen needed to carry out work in a manner that protects the employee, co-workers, the public, and the environment.

Balanced Priorities

Resources are effectively allocated to address safety, programmatic, and operational considerations. Protecting the public, the workers, and the environment is a priority whenever activities are planned and performed.

All environment, safety, and health activities in the Laboratory are described in technical terms with budgetary information included. Each year this information is updated, reviewed and prioritized on the basis of risk to workers, public, and the environment by a Laboratory-wide committee selected to represent programmatic line management and ES & H professionals. This document is utilized by Laboratory Senior Management in strategically planning the immediate focus and long-term goals of the environment, safety, and health program at the Laboratory.

Hazard Controls Tailored to Work Being Performed

Administrative and engineering controls to prevent and mitigate hazards are tailored to the work and associated hazards being performed.

Chapter 6 of the Environment, Health, and Safety Manual clearly defines the steps for each line manager to develop the appropriate engineering and administrative controls to mitigate hazards in the workplace. The Laboratory's Self Assessment Program, including Functional Appraisals by ES & H professionals, and the UC/DOE Contract 98 Performance Measures provide assurance that implementation of hazards control is adequate to protect the worker, the public, and the environment.

Identification of Safety Standards and Requirements

Before work is performed, the associated hazards are evaluated and an agreed-upon set of safety standards and requirements are established which, if properly implemented, provide adequate assurance that the public, the workers, and the environment are protected from adverse consequences.

The Laboratory is dedicated to following the Necessary and Sufficient Closure Process (DOE 450.3) on an iterative basis at all levels of activities in the Laboratory to ensure the Safety Standards are adequate to provide protection to workers, the public, and the environment. This process is completed by commencement of work in those situations where current work is significantly modified, new work is proposed, or substantial facility modifications are being made (Chapter 6, Environment Health and Safety Manual).

Operations Authorization

The conditions and requirements to be satisfied for operations to be initiated and conducted are clearly established and agreed-upon.

Conditions and requirements for facilities determined to be of higher risk based on the Integrated Hazards Analysis are contained in a Safety Analysis Document. Activity Hazard Documents are the basis for meeting this requirement for specific operations and activities falling into the higher risk category at the Berkeley Laboratory. Internal Agreements describing the performance expectations by each party are used for operations between two functional areas where the quality of performance might adversely impact the Laboratory's ability to meet its responsibility to protect workers, the public, and the environment.


AFRD's mission is to study and apply the physics of beams -- beams of ions, electrons, and light -- and to advance the related technologies. To do this, AFRD works closely with other LBNL organizations, notably the Engineering Division. The resulting ideas and technologies serve users worldwide in fields as diverse as surface science and structural biology. AFRD is divided into six program areas:

Fusion Energy Research. This program furthers the inertial fusion energy option, primarily through R&D on heavy-ion induction accelerators.

Advanced Light Source. This state-of-the-art synchrotron-radiation facility serves to provide intense, laserlike ultraviolet and x-ray beams to scientists in fields as diverse as surface science, structural biology, semiconductor inspection and materials analysis.

Center for Beam Physics. This group applies theoretical and practical capabilities to AFRD's programmatic needs while working on possible future projects.

The PEP-II B Factory. This electron-positron collider, is being built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center by a multi- institutional collaboration.

Superconducting Magnets. The complete "melt-to-magnet" capabilities of this program (that is, everything from materials science through magnet design and fabrication) help provide the technical foundations for the next generation of high-energy- physics accelerators.

Ion Beam Technology. This group applies accelerator science and technology to problems as diverse as cancer treatment and the manufacture of next-generation flat-panel displays. Much of the work is done in cooperation with other laboratories and with industry.


AFRD employees work in a wide range of physical environments, ranging from conventional offices to machine shops to high energy laboratories. Those involved in physical science and technology experimentation tend to have their activities localized. Therefore there is a high degree of familiarity of employees to their specific workplaces.


Most industrial hazards exist in AFRD activities at least to a small extent. The following list comprises the most prevalent conditions which have the potential to be considered hazardous.

1. Corrosives.

The IHA team verified that small amounts of corrosives are used in B 58 and 58A, 80, 10, 2, and 6

2. Flammable gases.

Torch cutting is performed in some shops.

There is a flammable gas storage cabinet in B10

Hydrogen is used in B16 and 5

Other flammables are used in B 53, 71A, and 6

3. Flammable liquids can be found in most AFRD non-office areas.

These are primarily solvents used in cleaning processes, e.g., alcohol, benzene, acetone. B10 has a chemical storage room with flammable liquid storage cabinets.

4. Cryogens.

Liquid nitrogen (LN) is used extensively in AFRD activities. Volume varies, but is most commonly encountered in small dewars. Cryogens are encountered in pipes and tubing assemblies and in cold traps.

5. Toxic Materials.

All laboratories and areas associated with accelerators utilize toxic chemicals to some extent, although the quantities are generally very small.

Building 71 has an experiment in progress which uses a 5% mixture of Fluorine in Krypton.

6. Laser system.

High powered lasers (Cl 3b, 4) are used in many AFRD operations, and are located in 58, 58a, 2, 5, 71, 6

7. Bridge cranes.

Located in most areas where there are accelerators, and some related areas: 58, 46, 80, 10, 16, 53, 64, 51, 6.

8. Electrical, including high voltage, high current, custom built apparatus, capacitors.

Encountered in most research areas. This is one of the most prevalent conditions in AFRD.

9. Forklifts.

B80, 27, 46, 64, 51, 6, 58.

10. Heat tapes.

Used to heat metal vessels to enhance evacuation. Found in all accelerator processes.

11. Ergonomics/ repetitive motion/ manual lifting.

This grouping is pervasive in the division, and is the most common potentially hazardous condition. It affects office workers, researchers, and technical support staff.

12. Pressurized cylinders and vessels.

Very common in all AFRD science processes. Found in B 58, 46, 80, 27, 10, 2, 16, 53, 5, 71, 6.

13. RF sources.

Associated with most AFRD science processes. Found in 71, 16, 5, 6, 27.

14. Rotating Equipment.

Found in all shops, and in many of the scientific areas, primarily belt driven pumps.

15. Shop Equipment.

All shops: B 58, 46, 80, 27, 16, 53.

16. Seismic.

All AFRD spaces have tall and/or expensive equipment which is seismically secured.

17. Vacuum equipment.

Vacuum vessels are always used in accelerator areas, and in most AFRD science functions.

18. X-ray, gamma ray.

In high voltage operations, e.g., B58, 53, 71, 6, there is production of incidental x-rays.

19. AHD renewal/ modification.

All major experiments in AFRD are covered by AHD's.

Accelerators and Radiation Sources

Accelerators exist in buildings 6, 5, and 16. The accelerators in 5 and 16 are low energy (<10kV). The entire ALS facility, Bldg. 6, is primarily dedicated to the use of a large accelerator. An electron beam that has been accelerated to 1.5 billion electron volts circulates in the storage ring for several hours, guided and focused by hundreds of precision electromagnets. Undulator and wiggler magnetic "insertion" devices that are also in the ring produce synchrotron radiation at the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet wavelengths.

The radiation produced in an accelerator is characterized as "prompt", that is, the radiation only exists when the machine is actually operating. Employee and guest exposure to radiation is controlled via concrete shielding and redundantly interlocked access controls.


There are no unique uncertainties which will impact hazard identification and selection of applicable and appropriate standards and requirements.


No significant changes in AFRD resources devoted to ES&H activities are planned.


There are no stakeholder concerns unique to AFRD. AFRD has managed, controlled, and permitted (as required) air, water, hazardous, and solid waste streams.

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