for Work and Hazards Identification to Define the Necessary and Sufficient Standards Set and Direct Appraisal Efforts

August 23, 1996


This report initially identifies the work activities and hazards that are present in the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) Materials Sciences Division (MSD) as part of the Integrated Hazard Assessment (IHA) process. Activities and hazards were identified in preparation for:

In late June 1996, a multi-disciplinary team of research and EH&S representatives from Berkeley Lab, Department of Energy (DOE) Oakland Operations, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was identified (note team listing below). Team members and contributors met six or more times to review available work activity and hazard information, identify hazards related to activities, field-check findings, and complete identification worksheets. Identification worksheet information was then entered into the IHA information management system and reviewed for quality. Identification worksheets were grouped by MSD-occupied buildings (i.e., B2, B62, B66, B70, and B72) and according to Principal Investigator (PI) or similar operations. Worksheets are available on the Berkeley Lab website. Building floor plans that show the grouping of MSD operations are presented in attachments to hard-copies of this report (i.e., operations that were grouped together are noted by dots connected by lines).

The body of this report summarizes the IHA team participants, project time-line, MSD organization and management, ES&H performance expectations and objectives, MSD actions to be performed, MSD physical conditions within which the work will be performed, MSD materials and conditions that could cause adverse consequences, uncertainties about the work, EH&S resource availability and constraints, and stakeholder concerns.

IHA Team members

IHA Project Timeline


The Materials Sciences Division (MSD) is composed of six scientific units, including:

Two independent research centers:

National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM),

Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO), and

Four research areas:

Advanced Spectroscopy

Materials Chemistry

Materials Physics

Structural Materials

On-site operations are located primarily in Berkeley Lab buildings B2, B62, B66, and B72. One operation is located in B70-173. NCEM is located in B72. CXRO is located in B2 on the first and fourth floors. MSD organization charts and building floor plans that note research operation ownership are included in attachments to hard-copies of this report.

Operations on the University of California Berkeley (UCB) campus are primarily in the Chemistry, Physics, and Material Science & Mineral Engineering Departments. Approximately two-thirds of MSD Principal Investigators are also UCB faculty.

Principal Investigators (PI) report either directly through Unit Heads or Center Directors to the Division Director (Daniel Chemla). PIs are accountable for the scientific excellence, relevance to the DOE mission, and fiscal integrity of their programs, as well as adherence to all administrative and regulatory requirements. The Division Safety Coordinator (Russ Ellis) is charged with oversight of matters pertaining to environment, safety, or health (ES&H). The Division Safety Coordinator reports to the Deputy Division Director (Mark Alper) through the MSD Administration group. An ES&H Committee meets periodically and provides guidance to the Division Director with regard to ES&H concerns. The ES&H Committee is chaired by the Division Safety Coordinator and is composed of representatives of PIs, staff, and students on a rotating assignment basis. In addition to Safety Committee members, Program Safety Representatives (about 25) are assigned from each PI group to coordinate ES&H activities for the personnel and operations of each PI. Periodically, a meeting of Safety Representatives is also held to coordinate ES&H needs.


Research Program Management Responsibility for Safety

Line Management is responsible for the protection of the public, the workers, and the environment.

At the Berkeley Laboratory the following documents establish the policy and provide the implementation guidance that makes line management effectively accountable for protection of workers, the public, and the environment:

  • Operations Assurance Plan, OAP (1996)

  • Self Assessment Manual (1992) and Supplement (1996)

  • Publication 3000, Environment Health and Safety Manual (1995)

  • Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (1992)

  • Waste Generator Guidelines (1996)

  • Employee Performance/Progress Review, Section III (1996)
  • Clear Roles and Responsibilities

    Clear and unambiguous lines of authority and responsibility for ensuring safety are established and maintained at all organizational levels within the Division and its contractors.

    Each Division making up the Berkeley Laboratory has clearly defined lines of responsibility down to the working level. Each division designates a research investigator to represent its views and concerns on the Laboratory Safety Review Committee and a full time employee to act as the ES&H Coordinator. This Coordinator acts as the interface between ES&H concerns, compliance in the workplace, and the EH&S technical professionals. Organizational information is updated routinely and is retained in the Functional/Facility Notebooks as appropriate (see OAP).

    Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities

    Personnel possess the experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities that are necessary to discharge their responsibilities.

    Job assignments, including hires, are reviewed by line management and by the compensation group within Human Resources to ensure that the requirements and responsibilities of a job are matched by the experience, knowledge, and skills of individuals selected for assignment. Performance expectations for managers and supervisors in the Divison match the talents, knowledge, and skills of staff to work assignments and responsibilities.

    The Laboratory's training program ensures that each staff member, including participating guests, is adequately trained to participate safely in Laboratory activities. Staff, with supervisor participation, fill out the Jobs Hazards Questionnaire (JHQ) describing the hazards associated with their job assignment and work area. Evaluation of the responses by the Training Coordinator and the cognizant supervisor determines the training regimen needed to carry out work in a manner that protects the employee, co-workers, the public, and the environment.

    Balanced Priorities

    Resources are effectively allocated to address safety, programmatic, and operational considerations. Protecting the public, the workers, and the environment is a priority whenever activities are planned and performed.

    All environment, safety, and health activities in the Laboratory are described in technical terms with budgetary information included. Each year this information is updated, reviewed and prioritized on the basis of risk to workers, public, and the environment by a Laboratory-wide committee selected to represent programmatic line management and ES & H professionals. This document is utilized by Laboratory Senior Management in strategically planning the immediate focus and long-term goals of the environment, safety, and health program at the Laboratory.

    Hazard Controls Tailored to Work Being Performed

    Administrative and engineering controls to prevent and mitigate hazards are tailored to the work and associated hazards being performed.

    Chapter 6 of the Environment, Health, and Safety Manual clearly defines the steps for each line manager to develop the appropriate engineering and administrative controls to mitigate hazards in the workplace. The Laboratory's Self Assessment Program, including Functional Appraisals by ES & H professionals, and the UC/DOE Contract 98 Performance Measures provide assurance that implementation of hazards control is adequate to protect the worker, the public, and the environment.

    Identification of Safety Standards and Requirements

    Before work is performed, the associated hazards are evaluated and an agreed-upon set of safety standards and requirements are established which, if properly implemented, provide adequate assurance that the public, the workers, and the environment are protected from adverse consequences.

    The Laboratory is dedicated to following the Necessary and Sufficient Closure Process (DOE 450.3) on an iterative basis at all levels of activities in the Laboratory to ensure the Safety Standards are adequate to provide protection to workers, the public, and the environment. This process is completed by commencement of work in those situations where current work is significantly modified, new work is proposed, or substantial facility modifications are being made (Chapter 6, Environment Health and Safety Manual).

    Operations Authorization

    The conditions and requirements to be satisfied for operations to be initiated and conducted are clearly established and agreed-upon.

    Conditions and requirements for facilities determined to be of higher risk based on the Integrated Hazards Analysis are contained in a Safety Analysis Document. Activity Hazard Documents are the basis for meeting this requirement for specific operations and activities falling into the higher risk category at the Berkeley Laboratory. Internal Agreements describing the performance expectations by each party are used for operations between two functional areas where the quality of performance might adversely impact the Laboratory's ability to meet its responsibility to protect workers, the public, and the environment.


    The Materials Sciences Division is broadly charged with conducting basic research in areas of materials sciences consistent with the National Energy Strategy. Activities include the discovery and synthesis of new materials, the characterization of new and existing materials, and the development of theory to explain experimental results and to predict the existence of new advanced materials.



    Building 2 Complex

    The B2 complex includes B2 and B2A. B2 is a four-story building. Note the attached floor plans of B2 MSD operations. All research operations are contained in about 58 single-room labs located primarily in two building cores. These labs have lab hoods for chemical use. In addition, B2 has about 118 offices located primarily on the perimeter of the building and a machine shop on the first floor. About one-third of the first floor of B2 contains building mechanical and electrical areas which are not potential hazards for MSD personnel. B2A is a separate concrete-wall building with only two small rooms designed according to "hazardous occupancy" Code requirements for the storage of hazardous solids/liquids and non-toxic hazardous gases.

    Building 62 Complex

    The B62 complex includes B62 and B62A. B62 is two joined buildings: a three-story lab and office building and a two-story shop building. Note the attached floor plan of B62 operations. All research operations are contained in about 31 single-room labs. Only four other labs in the building belong to another division (i.e., Energy & Environment). Chemical-use labs and shops have lab hoods (29) or other local exhaust points (9). In addition, B62 has about 48 offices located primarily on the perimeter of the building. The shop area contains a shop floor and upper mezzanine ("highbay"). A small basement area contains building mechanical equipment which is not potentially hazardous for MSD personnel. B62A is a separate trailer that contains about eight offices.

    Building 66

    B66 is a four-story building that contains MSD Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) research programs and division administration offices. Note the attached floor plans of B66 operations. All research operations are contained in about 34 single-room labs. These labs have about 27 lab hoods for chemical use. The CAM Biomolecular Materials Program has six wet-chemistry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy labs. The CAM High Performance Metals Program has nine metallurgical testing labs including darkroom, microscopy and sample preparation, heat-treating furnaces, and mechanical testing. The CAM Surface Science and Catalysis Program has about 13 labs, including 19 ultra-high vacuum chambers, and a laser lab. In addition, B66 has about 54 offices. The partial first floor of B66 contains building mechanical and electrical areas which are not potential hazards for MSD personnel.

    Building 72 Complex

    The B72 Complex contains the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM). NCEM is a national, user-oriented resource for transmission electron microscopy. Note the attached floor plans of B72 operations. NCEM has about seven transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Two of these TEMs are each housed in a three-story silo/building: the High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) is in B72A and the Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM) is in B72B. The other TEMs are housed in single rooms. In addition, the NCEM facility has two photographic dark rooms, two wet and dry microscope specimen preparation labs, an optical diffraction room, a small electronic and machine shop, and about 13 offices. Chemical-use areas have lab hoods. The Low Background Counting Facility in room 128 is managed by the Nuclear Science Division.

    Building 70

    B70 only contains one MSD research operation (C. Shank) which is in two laser lab rooms. This operation is planned to be moved in the next six months to the B2 third floor as part of the Molecular Design Institute (MDI) space consolidation project. In addition, this operation has several lasers on the Advanced Light Source beamline, which will be covered in the AFRD/ALS Integrated Hazard Analysis.

    University of California Berkeley

    Operations on the University of California Berkeley (UCB) campus are primarily located in Birge, Etcheverry, Hearst Mining, Hildebrand, Latimer, and Le Conte Halls.



    Examples (not summaries) of typical materials and conditions that could cause adverse consequences if not controlled are listed below. These examples are first listed by Necessary and Sufficient requirements identification topic areas, and then by hazard categories. Typical levels of concern are also shown based on the estimated level of control that is implemented or achievable. Levels of concern noted as "moderate" (or "high" in one case) may need additional future evaluation to verify this level of concern and adequacy of controls.


    Chemical Hazards:

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous inert and hazardous materials are used typically in smaller quantities throughout many labs and some shops in all MSD-occupied buildings. Hazardous materials include flammable gases, flammable liquids, inert cryogens, corrosives, reactives or explosives, reproductive toxins, carcinogens, pyrophorics, toxic materials, health hazard gases, and oxidizers. Hazardous materials are commonly used inside high-integrity, closed systems (e.g., vacuum chambers and gas systems). Hazardous materials that may become significantly airborne are typically handled inside hoods. Personal protective equipment and administrative procedures are used as needed. Given the level of controls used, the overall level of concern for acute or chronic chemical exposure at any one operation is "low." Examples of hazardous materials uses include:

    Flammable Gases:

    Many locations use compressed flammable gases in quantities less than two large cylinders (200 cf). Level of concern is "low."

    Some locations on the 4th floor of B66 have more than 200 cf of hydrogen present. Level of concern is "moderate."

    Atmospheric quartz hydrogen furnaces which are vacuum leak checked (B2-260A) are a "moderate" level of concern.

    Flammable Liquids:

    Flammable liquids are used throughout MSD in smaller quantities and are typically organic solvents.

    Flammable liquids such as acetone, chlorobenzene, hexane, IPA, MIBK, and octane are used in lithography (B2-236)

    Inert Cryogens: Level of concern is "low."

    Liquid nitrogen is dispensed from a large outside tank into 160L dewars. 160L dewars are rolled to labs (B62, B66, B2)

    Liquid nitrogen is dispensed from 160L dewars into 4L dewars (e.g., electron microscopes).

    Cold traps are used with vacuum chambers (B2-CXRO, 102)


    Hydrofluoric acid solution is used in some labs.

    A wide variety of common corrosives are used throughout various MSD labs.

    Reactives or Explosives:

    Use of unheated perchloric acid in lab hoods (B72-102)

    Use of highly-reactive, flammable-solid sodium and lithium metals in inert atmosphere gloveboxes (B62-150). Level of concern is "moderate."

    Reproductive Toxins:

    Laser dye solutions are mixed inside lab hoods.

    Toluene is used in small quantities for cleaning (B62-208). Level of concern is "low."


    Laser dye solutions are mixed inside lab hoods.

    Small quantities of chemicals such as methylene chloride, chloroform, benzene, acrylamide, carbon tetrachloride, and chromium trioxide are used inside hoods (B66).

    Toxic and Pyrophoric Materials:

    Ion implant (B2-258) and chemical vapor deposition (B2-256) source gases or evaporating liquids have toxic, pyrophoric, carcinogenic, reproductively toxic, reactive, and/or corrosive properties that yield a "moderate" level of concern.

    Health Hazard Gases:

    Small quantity cylinders of carbon monoxide are dispensed into vacuum chambers (B66).

    Fluorine gas is used with lasers (B2 MDI)


    Oxidizing acids (e.g., nitric acid) and gases (e.g., oxygen) are commonly used.

    Electrical Hazards:

    Transmission electron microscopes (B72) contain enclosed high voltage power supplies. Level of concern for contractor maintenance of microscopes is "moderate."

    CXRO (B2-4th floor) has many pieces of equipment with high voltage sources: diffractometers, reflectometers, spectrometers, sputterer, evaporator. Level of concern is "low."

    Repair of electronic equipment greater than 120V occurs periodically in electronic shops (B72-112A, B2-CXRO, B62-155). Level of concern is "low."

    High voltage power supplies on lasers. Level of concern is "low" to "moderate."

    Development and repair of equipment with electrical components (B66-2nd floor). Level of concern is "low."

    Ion implanter (B2-258) high voltage electrical. Level of concern is "moderate."

    Nanowriter operation (B2-115) high voltage concern is "moderate."

    Hydraulic Systems:

    Hydraulic systems are used to conduct fatigue testing on materials (B62-100C, 118, 144, 146; B66-310)

    Mechanical Equipment:

    Very small material specimens are prepared for microscopy with table-top grinding and cutting equipment. Level of concern is "low."


    The following approximate number of Class 3b or 4 laser labs are present: B2 (7), B62 (3), B66 (1), and B70 (1). Lasers are controlled as specified in Pub 3000. Level of concern is "moderate" due to potential for eye injury.

    Medical monitoring includes laser eye exams for laser users.

    Non-Ionizing Radiation:

    Strong magnetic fields are noted for the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR, B2-237)) Spectrometer. Magnetic and microwave fields are noted for the Optical Detection of Magnetic Resonance (ODMR, B2-237) apparatus. Level of concern is "low."

    RF Sputtering system and Magnetometer (B62-308, 312) may have RF and magnetic fields. Level of concern is "low."

    Pressure and Vacuum Hazards:

    Small to large cylinders of inert and hazardous gases are used throughout MSD with regulators and appropriate gas system components.

    Small vacuum chambers are common throughout MSD. Vacuum chambers are often back-filled from pressure sources such as gas cylinders or contain windows in excess of four inches.

    ARM tank (B72B) is greater than 10 cf and is pumped down annually.

    Pressurized glass apparatus in B66-426 needs evaluation. Level of concern is "moderate." Other apparatuses in B66-224.

    Biological Hazards:

    Biological agents (Class 1 and 2) are only used in B66 at one location. No Class 3 or 4 infectious agents are used. Level of concern is very "low."

    Ovens and Furnaces

    Furnaces are commonly used. Level of concern generally "low," except for furnaces also using flammable gases.

    Unattended Operations

    Research experiments and apparatuses are often run in an unattended mode, especially during the day, but the consequences of failure yields a general "low" level of concern. A few operations yielded a "moderate" level of concern. Generally, more evaluation of this item is needed to identify any potential concerns.

    Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAA):

    There are approximately 65 SAAs in MSD. The level of concern is "low."


    Shop Equipment, Welding/Soldering:

    Rotating and cutting equipment in small machine shop (B72-112A)

    Milling, lathing, bead-blasting, braking, hydraulic ramming, solvent cleaning to make parts in one moderate and one small machine shop (B2-126, 227).

    Machining, welding and soldering, tensile testing, compressive load-testing, vacuum repair, abrasive blasting, metal forming, and student shop (B62-101, 202).

    Isostatic presses (B62-142) used for metals forming may have large stored pressure energy. Level of concern is "high." Evaluation needed.

    Cranes or Hoists:

    Smaller electron microscopes have manual hoists (B72)

    HVEM (B72A) and ARM (B72B) have six-ton bridge cranes, other hoists, and lifting fixtures on the microscope tanks.

    Manual hoist in B66-229

    Personnel Falls/Platforms/Lifts:

    Elevated platforms located on top of HVEM (B72A) and ARM (B72B) tanks.

    Confined spaces:

    Van de Graaf tank is a confined space, but level of concern is very "low."

    Seismic Hazards:

    Tall and/or valuable lab research equipment is typically secured in labs (e.g., electronic racks).


    Beadblaster in B2-435D needs evaluation. Level of concern is "low."

    Accelerators and Radiation Sources

    "X-Ray Machines"

    Only four MSD machines have enough potential for X-ray emission to be on the EH&S "X-Ray Machine" list. These machines are:

    B2 CXRO Rotating Anode X-Ray Diffractometer (B2-458),

    B2 CXRO Phillips XRG 3100 (B2-423), and

    Two X-ray diffractometers (B62-145). Film badge monitoring on operators.

    Level of concern is "moderate."

    Incidential X-Ray Sources

    X-rays that are incidential to the operation and a "low" level of concern are generated in the following transmission electron microscopy (TEM), spectroscopy, and ion implantation operations:

    TEMs: X-ray hazards from TEMs are blocked by equipment design and chamber walls (B72).

    The HVEM (B72A) and ARM (B72B), both TEMs, have area monitoring using fixed-in- place film badges and ionization chambers.

    X-ray hazards in x-ray spectroscopy are shielded by the metal vacuum chamber (B66-430, 411 & B2-133, 423).

    XPS (B66-207). Level of concern is "low."

    Dosimetry is conducted for incidental X-rays on the ion implanter.

    Sealed Sources:

    The EH&S inventory of radiation sealed sources lists only four sealed sources in MSD. These sources are at B2-434, X-ray Spectroscopy Lab. Level of concern is "low."


    EBMUD general site sanitary sewer permit. Level of concern is "moderate."

    EBMUD B2 acid waste drain fixed treatment unit and drain system. Level of concern is "moderate."

    Darkroom fixer and developer cannot be poured down drains as specified in EBMUD permit.

    BAAQMD general solvent-wipe permit. Level of concern is "moderate."

    Diesel underground storage tanks at B66 (2) and B2.

    Ozone Depleting Substances: Transmission electron microscopes have about 0.5 lb. of freon. Small quantities of TCA and carbon tetrachloride are present in various locations.


    Repetitive Motion:

    Office work at video display terminals at all locations may lead to cumulative trauma injuries. The level of concern that some injury may occur is estimated to be "moderate." Several cumulative trauma injuries in offices have been reported in MSD in the last year. There are approximately 250 offices in MSD: B2 (118), B62 (56), B66 (54), and B72 (13).


    Some vehicles are non-routinely used by MSD personnel.


    There are no unique uncertainties which will impact hazard identification and selection of applicable and appropriate standards and requirements. The following significant changes in MSD facilities will not significantly alter the overall hazards or requirements.

    B2 Molecular Design Institute (MDI):

    The following groups are moving to the third-north floor of B2 to form the MDI. The Peter Shultz/Xaio Dong Xiang group will move from UCB Latimer Hall and B62-242, 310, and 312 to B2-327, 331, 333, 335, and 355 to do materials synthesis. The Charles Shank group laser lab will move from B70-173, 177 to B2-third floor. The Paul Alivisatos group will move from UCB campus to B2-307, 321, and 359 to do nanocrystal synthesis and characterization.

    B2 Nanofab:

    The B2 Nanofab phase 1 facility has been constructed on the north-first floor of B2. An E-beam nanowriter and small lithography cleanroom is due for startup. Additional phases will develop this facility further in the same area.

    B62 Bell Group Move:

    The Alex Bell group in B62-316, 320, 338, 342, 344, and 348 is currently moving to UCB campus and will be moved by Fall 1996. Future use of these rooms has not been determined.

    B72C Electron Microscope Facility Addition:

    A small two-story structure is being added onto B72C and is scheduled for completion in late 1996. This new structure will have three electron microscope rooms (including two electron microscopes) on the first floor and nine offices on the second floor. Potential hazards associated with the two new microscopes are the same as potential hazards of current transmission electron microscopes in operation in B72.


    No significant changes in MSD resources devoted to ES&H activities are planned.

    Representatives of the MSD (Joel Ager and Russ Ellis) offered the following evaluation of the EH&S Division past and future resources and support:


    There are no stakeholder concerns unique to MSD. MSD has managed, controlled, and permitted (as required) air, water, hazardous, and solid waste streams.


    Attached to hard copies of this report are MSD organization charts and floor plans of MSD operations. IHA worksheets for MSD operations that were completed as part of this project are available at Berkeley Lab on the web site at http://www.lbl.gov/Workplace/NS-Program/

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