Othon Monteiro, a materials scientist in the Plasma Applications
Group of Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, has devised a new way to
inlay copper wires in the semiconductor wafers used to create integrated circuits.
"Ion-assisted trench filling" promises to open the way to ever more densely
packed chips beyond the year 2000.
Standard methods of inlaying metals in etched
semiconductors may leave voids and fractures (top). Ion-assisted trench filling (bottom),
developed by the Lab's Plasma Applications Group, results in perfect metal inlays.
The Semiconductor Industry Association's most recent National Technology Roadmap
predicts that new lithography methods will reduce today's smallest chip features, already
as fine as 250 nanometers (billionths of a meter), to 180 nanometers by 1999, 100
nanometers by 2006, and even finer dimensions in the years beyond, making it possible to
pack hundreds of millions more integrated circuits on a chip.
Many of these microscopic devices must be interconnected by metal wires, made by
filling tiny trenches in the surface of the semiconductor wafer; multiple levels are
connected by penetrating the layer to make contacts with layers above and below. The
standard stuff of such wires has long been aluminum or aluminum alloys and, in interlayer
"As device sizes get smaller, the electrical properties of aluminum will not meet
the new requirements," says Monteiro. "We need lower resistivity and greater
resistance to electromigration" (the drift of metal atoms when the conductor is
carrying high current densities, which can create voids). Adds Monteiro, "We also
need something that's compatible with lower dielectric-constant materials," which
have been introduced by chip manufacturers to improve insulation and reduce circuit
Copper is much more conductive than aluminum, allowing finer wires with lower resistive
losses. Copper is also significantly less vulnerable to electromigration than aluminum and
less likely to fracture under stress. Unfortunately, "copper is poisonous to
silicon," Monteiro says. "It readily diffuses into silicon and causes deep-level
Late in 1997 the first commercial copper-wired chips were announced by IBM and
Motorola. To keep the copper from migrating into the dielectric and poisoning it, a
diffusion barrier was used, which lined the trench walls between the copper and the
substrate. Motorola used titanium nitride as a barrier; other possible barrier materials
include tantalum, tantalum alloys, and tantalum nitride.
IBM and Motorola produced their copper-wired chips by electroplating the copper over
the diffusion barrier. Although Monteiro's ion-assisted technique can be used either in
conjunction with electroplating or by itself, it has several advantages over
electroplating. It can produce thinner, more uniform layers of metals in a variety of
architectures. It can be used in narrower trenches with higher depth-to-width aspect
ratios. It can fill trenches from the bottom up, automatically eliminating uneven
deposition that can lead to voids in the metal lines -- or it can produce conformal thin
films that mirror the shape of the patterned wafer.
To employ the technique, a substrate wafer etched with trenches is placed under a
plasma source. A pulsed bias voltage is applied to the substrate and can be tuned to
accelerate ions toward both the sides and bottom of the trench (in which case a layer
builds up evenly) or preferentially to the bottom, filling the trench from the bottom up.
The process is terminated when the precise desired thickness of the material has been
Films consisting of multiple layers are readily deposited using different cathode
materials. Copper, tantalum, tantalum nitride, and a variety of other materials can be
applied in this way. Copper metalization, for example, may begin by depositing a conformal
film of tantalum 20 to 50 nanometers thick. Ions of copper are then deposited on top of
the tantalum layer. The process can be halted when the new material has formed a thin
conformal coating, or the deposition can be continued until the trench is filled
completely. Another possibility is to use the thin copper layer as a "seed
layer" and fill the trench electrochemically.
To facilitate closer packing and multilevel connections, trenches are getting
proportionally deeper as they get narrower. "Deep trenches etched into the dielectric
must be filled completely, without voids or defects," Monteiro says. "With
current technology, the deeper the trench, the more likely there will be defects."
"Dual-Damascene" methods are currently used to etch the trenches, fill them
electrolytically, then mechanically polish away the excess metal using a chemically active
slurry. (The term is borrowed from the way the Arab swordsmiths of medieval Damascus
inlaid their famous weapons.) Etching and filling narrow structures with high aspect
ratios will be especially difficult for dual-Damascene architectures.
Multilayer film methods will be essential, but a problem with common vapor-deposition
techniques is that material builds up at the top of the trench and closes it off, leaving
a void below. In ion-assisted deposition, however, the highly charged ions drive straight
into the trench, dislodging excessive build-up before it accumulates.
"The challenge is to address narrower paths," Monteiro says. "Our goal
is to get from 250 nanometers to 100 nanometers, at a 10-to-1 aspect ratio. And I'm
confident we can go even below that."
Monteiro, who has applied for a patent on ion-assisted trench filling, says that what
amazes him about the semiconductor industry "is that they know where they want to be
without knowing how they're going to get there; but somehow they always do."
Monteiro's new technique is one of the latest technologies to come to the industry's