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Berkeley Lab Currents

September 22, 1997


Three Labs Enter Historic Partnership with Intel Corp. to Create "Superchips"

Peña says joint project will be largest CRADA in DOE history

By Jon Bashor

Scientists from Berkeley Lab will add their expertise in the field of precision optics to a historic partnership announced last week to develop the technology for manufacturing future generations of faster, more powerful computer chips.

Members of Berkeley Lab's Center for X-ray Optics will join with scientists at Lawrence Livermore and Sandia national laboratories in a partnership with a semiconductor electronics industry consortium led by Intel Corp., the world's largest manufacturer of computer chips. The partnership will pursue the use of extreme ultraviolet light to create chips with features as small as 0.1 microns and smaller. By way of comparison, a human hair is about 80 microns wide.

The resulting "superchips" would allow microprocessors to become 100 times more powerful and memory chips to store 1,000 times more information than currently is possible.

By creating chips with smaller and smaller features-- the semiconductor industry will introduce chips this year with 0.25 micron features--computer manufacturers will be able to pack more computing capacity into a given chip.

Secretary of Energy Federico Peña, participating in a news conference in San Jose to announce a kick-off three-year, $250 million contract, said the new technology will permit entire libraries of books to be stored on a single chip. Computers may be able to conduct intelligent "conversations," in any language, through voice recognition and response, he said.

Joining Peña in the announcement were Chairman Emeritus Gordon Moore of Intel; Advanced Micro Devices Chairman Jerry Sanders; Joe Mogab of Motorola; Tinsley Optics President Bob Aronno; laboratory directors Charles V. Shank (Berkeley), Bruce Tarter (Livermore), and Deputy Director John Crawford (Sandia); and several representatives of computer manufacturing and design agencies.

Peña said the partnership, the largest Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in DOE history, "is the strongest possible endorsement of the scientific and technical capabilities found at the Department of Energy's national laboratories."

The three laboratories will form a "virtual national laboratory" with the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Limited Liability Company (EUV LLC), headed by Intel, Motorola, and Advanced Micro Devices. The goal is to have a commercially proven manufacturing technology for a new generation of computer chip in place by the early 21st century.

In order to produce such chips, manufacturers must be able to purchase manufacturing equipment with very precise optics capable of transferring the intricate patterns onto the chip material. That's where Berkeley Lab comes in. The Lab will receive about 10 percent of the total research funding.

Extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) and soft X-rays, the type used by CXRO at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source, are next to each other in the spectrum. Because of their short wavelengths, the two kinds of light are well suited for work in the area of microscopy (the smaller the wavelength, the smaller the feature that you can see) and lithography (the smaller the wavelength, the smaller feature than can be etched by the light). And because they are very similar, Berkeley Lab's decade of expertise in this largely untapped field will make it a key member of the virtual lab partnership.

Under the CRADA, Sandia California will provide the EUV light source and the recording material, and be responsible for integrating the system. Lawrence Livermore will provide the critical optics and coatings for the lenses, as well as the "mask blanks" for making patterns on chips.

Berkeley Lab will provide the EUV measurements to determine the accuracy of the optics and optical coatings as they are developed, said Dave Attwood, head of Berkeley's Center for X-ray Optics. Jeffrey Bokor is the team leader for EUV interferometry, and Jim Underwood is the team leader for EUV reflectometry and scattering measurements.

Underwood's group will be studying the performance of the multi-layer coatings on the mirrors used in the manufacturing process, with the goal of improved optical throughput and coating uniformity. Underwood said his work will be done on Beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS.

"We have a wealth of experience in this field, which we've been pushing for 10 years," said Attwood. "For this project, we need to make measurements at wavelengths at which the optics are actually being used.

"Our measurements will focus on how the optical wavefront is distorted as it reflects from the new optics, then provide information as to how the components can be improved to further reduce the distortion," Attwood said. "Such fine detail is essential to the consortium's success, and demonstrates how each lab is playing an integral role in the success of this project." He noted that Hector Medecki in CXRO holds the patent on the interferometer for making these measurements.

One of the difficulties in using this kind of light, Attwood says, is that all materials absorb at these wavelengths, thereby providing an unusual challenge in making compatible mirrors and lenses. On the other hand, EUV is also a very powerful tool for chemistry and materials science, especially at the atomic and molecular level.

"Optics at these very short wavelengths present their own challenges and the field was in a very crude state when we began our work at Berkeley in the early 1980s," Attwood said. "With the progress made here, at our partner labs and in centers around the world, we've made substantial advances in the past decade. Our goals for the next few years would have been unthinkable 10 years ago."

Under the agreement, optical components developed at Livermore will be brought to the ALS for testing and measurement. Those EUV measurements will be critical to understanding and maximizing the coatings and measuring the properties of the optics once they have been coated, Attwood said.

Bokor's group is adapting optical testing methods for use at the ALS. Typically, lasers are used for testing lithography optics, but there is no laser available to test at the EUV wavelength. "Inventing a new method to use the properties of the ALS is where the innovation is," Bokor said.

"We're looking for perfection at a very high level, because the image has to be superbly crisp," he said. "In order for it to be crisp, the optics have to be free of any errors. Our job is to test the optics at the operating wavelength and put the final stamp of approval on the optics before they are put into the manufacturing systems."

While still in the development stages, Attwood said the relationship among the three labs is working "miraculously well, and they are virtually working as a cohesive research organization."

The EUV lithography approach is just one of three being explored worldwide. Intel's Moore emphasized that the other processes--one using shadow-casting techniques with shorter-wavelength x-rays, another using electron beam direct writing--will continue to be assessed in the race to build a smaller, faster chip.


From left, Lawrence Livermore National Lab Director Bruce Tarter, Secretary of Energy Federico Peña, Intel cofounder Gordon Moore, Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank, and Sandia Deputy Drector John Crawford examine a 5X lithography tool following a press conference in San Jose announcing the partnership of the three labs with the semiconductor industry consortium. (ZBD9709-03600) Photo courtesy of Sandia Labs


Annual DOE On-site Review of Lab Ends on Positive Note

By Ron Kolb

After a long day of meetings, tours and discussions, Martha Krebs, the Department of Energy's Director for Energy Research, paused to reflect on her most recent visit to her former workplace.

"I always look forward to coming back to Berkeley to see people excited about science, and people who can communicate that excitement in a way that is both understanding of the local setting and sensible in the context of our financial circumstances," said Krebs, an associate laboratory director here from 1983 to 1993.

With that positive assessment, she concluded the annual DOE On-Site Review of Berkeley Lab programs. The series of presentations on Sept. 12, which began with a breakfast conversation with community leaders, showcased the Laboratory's priority scientific initiatives and addressed the Lab's key operational issues.

Among the attendees with Krebs were DOE associate directors Dave Nelson and Ari Patrinos; program directors Toni Joseph, Mark Gilbertson, John O'Fallon, Robert Waldron, Maurice Katz and John Willis; program manager Dennis Kovar; senior advisors David Goldman and Marvin Singer; scientists Richard Kelley and Ronald McKnight, and managers Steve Buswell, Donald Priester and Ray Schwartz.

DOE-Oakland Manager Jim Turner, Deputy Manager Martin Domagala, and Berkeley Site Office Director Richard Nolan were also participants. Representing the University of California was Robert Shelton, vice provost for research.

Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank provided an overview of the Laboratory's strategic planning and highlighted three initiatives as prospective developmental areas for the DOE--a scientific investigation of heavy ion fusion as a potential energy source, a computational science plan to promote integration of high-performance computing into energy research programs, and molecular environmental science using the tools of synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source.

Throughout the day, the DOE visitors were exposed to a wealth of Berkeley Lab contributions, delivered by their research champions. Associate Laboratory Director Bill McCurdy addressed computational science issues in the context of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), and Life Sciences Division Director Mina Bissell reflected on the challenges of the genomics program and the forthcoming "revolution" in biological science in the 21st century.

Elbert Branscomb of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who heads the three-lab Joint Genome Institute, noted that the new sequencing facility, which will open next year in Walnut Creek, will help the labs reach a goal of 20 million base pairs of genes sequenced in 1998.

Accelerator and Fusion Research Division Director Bill Barletta and physicist Roger Bangerter presented ideas for an inertial confinement fusion program utilizing heavy-ion drivers. Chemist David Shuh described work on the new environmental sciences beamline at the ALS. And Division Directors Mark Levine (Environmental Energy Technologies) and Sally Benson (Earth Sciences) focused on Berkeley Lab's global climate change activities, including proposals for national and regional impact assessment strategies.

Between presentations, the group toured the Solenoid Tracker at RHIC (STAR) time projection chamber, being prepared for delivery to Brookhaven later this year; the new human genome laboratory building, nearing completion; the recently opened Hazardous Waste Handling Facility; and new beamlines at the ALS.

Deputy Director Klaus Berkner offered an overview of administrative and operations achievements and issues, and EH&S Division Director David McGraw briefed the review team on the evolving integrated safety management program.

"In the context of what Klaus and David were talking about, I have a lot of confidence that the Laboratory, in partnership with the DOE Site Office and Oakland, have put strong systems in place to help the Lab meet the expectations of the Department in integrating science and safety," Krebs said. "But we're still in the early stages of this exercise, and I'm looking forward to coming back next year to see how far into the Lab this component can be observed."

Krebs' day began early with an informal breakfast with a group of community representatives, including Berkeley Mayor Shirley Dean, City Councilwoman Polly Armstrong, and Chamber of Commerce Chairman Dana Ellsworth; Fire Prevention Commission Chairman Jerry Carlin; Berkeley High vice-principal Fred Dunn-Ruiz; YMCA Administrator Alex Antonio, and Jean Quan, president of the Oakland Board of Education.

"I was pleased to be able to meet with members of the community who have to deal with real issues confronting their people, as well as those who are clear about the benefits this laboratory brings to them, especially the educational element," Krebs said.


Members of the onsite review committee, including Martha Krebs, director of DOE's Office of Energy Research (center), along with Lab participants, toured several of the Laboratory's research facilities, including the STAR time projection chamber, human genome laboratory, Advanced Light Source, and Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. (XBD9709-03462-02) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


Researchers Learning to Mimic Nature with Development of Nanoscale Composites That Can Self-Assemble

By Paul Preuss

Nature has used self-assembling materials for structures measured in nanometers (billionths of a meter) for hundreds of millions of years, as components of living cells. Human attempts at nanoscale manufacture, however, have been confined mostly to building structural materials a few atoms or molecules at a time. That state of affairs may be on the verge of change.

Douglas Gin, a researcher in the Materials Science Division and assistant professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley, has devised a general technique for engineering nanocomposites that begins with the self-assembly of synthetic starting materials.

Teeth, bones, and shells demonstrate how cleverly nature assembles different materials into a variety of useful composites at the cellular level. Bone, tough but not brittle, consists of layers of collagen protein incorporating crystals of inorganic calcium phosphate; the same materials in a different ratio, with only a few percent protein, yield the hardest material produced by living things, tooth enamel.

Early in the twentieth century chemists learned to coax soap-like surfactants to assemble themselves into layered films and liquid crystal phases, but remarkable as they were, these structures lacked nature's sophistication.

Liquid crystals also form the skeleton of Douglas Gin's unique new composites. First the crystals organize themselves into stacks of miniature tubes which can be polymerized. The tubes contain a chemical precursor in solution, and once the liquid-crystal matrix has been locked into place by polymerization, the filler can be converted to a solid.

Unlike the sort of liquid crystals found in digital displays, which change in response to temperature or an electromagnetic field, Gin uses "lyotropic" liquid crystals; these respond to additives and other chemical changes.

"The design of unique lyotropic liquid crystals is the key to everything that follows," says Gin. He works with polymerizable surfactants consisting of "amphiphilic monomers"--individual molecules that have both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-fearing) ends (thus amphiphilic--both-ends-loving). When the monomers of laundry soap form a droplet in water, all their water-loving heads point outward and their water-fearing tails point inward--where they may surround a glob of grease or dirt. The technical name for a soap droplet is "micelle"; by adding more and more individual molecules, micelles can organize themselves into long cylinders.

Instead of submerging his monomers in water, Gin reduces the amount of water in his system and designs monomers to form "inverse" cylindrical micelles with their water-loving heads inward. Meanwhile the water-fearing tails on the outside of the tubes seek each other's company, and the tubes--just like a stack of drain pipes--pack themselves into hexagons, the tightest possible geometric packing arrangement. After the hexagonal architecture is locked in place, says Gin, "We can do ordinary synthetic-organic chemistry inside the channels."

Using two different kinds of monomers and two different filler precursors, Gin and his colleagues have already demonstrated two novel self-organizing nanocomposites with unique properties. In one technique the liquid-crystal matrix has been formed in a solution containing the precursor of a light-emitting, electrically conducting polymer called PPV. When Gin turns up the heat, the precursor converts to PPV inside the tubes to form what is effectively a bundle of long, discrete, exceedingly fine wires. His group has made uniformly oriented films of this material up to eight centimeters across, yet only 30 to 100 microns thick.

Nanoscale materials often show markedly different properties from the same material in bulk, and PPV is no exception: Gin's hexagonal matrix of PPV has over twice the fluorescence of a similar volume in bulk.

In related work funded by the National Science Foundation, Gin is studying an entirely different liquid-crystal system, which uses a different monomer to build the hexagonal-tube framework and a different filler precursor. The solution includes a small amount of a chemical that generates an acid when illuminated; in the presence of the acid the precursor converts to silicate glass, even at room temperature--so when Gin turns on the light ... voila!

The resulting composite has a fine, nanoscale structure quite unlike that of normal amorphous glass or plastic. Gin and his colleagues describe it as "a tough, pale-yellow, slightly opaque, glassy material ... completely insoluble in common organic solvents and water." It promises unusual properties, including hardness, now under investigation.

The two composites so far created using custom-made lyotropic liquid crystals are promising steps on the path to true nanometer-scale materials engineering.

"Three years ago I started with this crazy idea that self-assembling liquid crystals could be used to make nanomaterials in bulk," says Gin. "Now my new graduate students make a hundred grams a week of some of these liquid crystals, just as a training exercise. I think we have a viable system."


Researcher Douglas Gin has devised a technique for engineering self-assembling nanoscale composites. (XBD9709-03461-01) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


News Digest


DOE-UC Agree to Renew Lab Contracts

After more than a year of negotiations, the U. S. Department of Energy and the University of California have agreed upon new five-year contracts that would permit UC to continue its management of the national laboratories at Berkeley, Livermore, and Los Alamos. If approved by the Regents and DOE, the contracts will run concurrently until September 2002.

UC has managed the three laboratories since their respective inceptions. The labs employ a combined UC workforce of more than 17,000 people and operate on federally funded budgets totaling about $2.4 billion. As proposed, the new contracts will continue the performance-based management system introduced with the 1992 contracts. The success of that system won acclaim for the DOE/UC partnership as an "exemplary model" by Vice President Al Gore's National Performance Review study. The new contracts will also continue the preservation of scientific and intellectual freedom at the laboratories; and the administration by UC of benefit and retirement plans for laboratory employees.

UC is to receive $14 million a year for operating costs that are not otherwise reimbursed by the government, and for discretionary research at the laboratories. This fee may be increased or decreased based on results of each lab's annual performance appraisal. DOE is to also provide $11 million annually as a fixed payment for the indirect costs of managing the labs and up to $4.5 million a year to fund the UC Laboratory Administration Office. The new contracts would allow UC to terminate one or more of the agreements upon 18 months' notice.


Peña to Speed Lab Reforms

Energy Secretary Federico Peña has pledged to members of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) that the pace of management reforms at the national laboratories will increase. Admitting that "we've not made sufficient progress" on the reforms called for in the 1995 Galvin report, Peña embraced SEAB's request that DOE draw up specific plans to restructure the multibillion dollar research efforts at the labs. The major goals are to reduce red tape, bring in more outside researchers, and develop a long-range strategic plan that would outline the cost, purpose, and importance of proposed new initiatives. Peña promised SEAB that Ernest Moniz, the MIT physicist nominated to be DOE's next Under Secretary, will lead the reform effort once he has been confirmed. In the meantime, responding to SEAB criticisms that decisions on new facilities are made on a piece-meal basis, Peña has asked Martha Krebs, head of the Office of Energy Research, to oversee the creation of a "road map" for new facilities over the next 15-20 years. Krebs has also been asked, in her role as chair of DOE's R&D Council (a group of senior DOE managers), to develop a plan that will reduce the amount of overlap in lab management. Delegating greater management responsibility to the labs is one option that will be explored.

Following his meeting with SEAB, Peña also announced the creation of a new task force to advise DOE on how it can more effectively use its resources at the national laboratories to bolster math and science education in this country at all levels. The Secretary has appointed Hanna Gray, a history professor and former president of the University of Chicago, to chair this task force. At one time, DOE spent as much as $70 million a year on education but has nothing allocated for it this year. The Department has requested $10 million for science education in FY-98; Senate appropriators have approved this request.


Too Much Light?

The balanced budget accord reached by the White House and Congress this summer calls for level spending through 2002. As reported in a recent issue of Science, this prospect has led the Department of Energy to create a blue-ribbon panel of 17 scientists whose task is to advise DOE on the fate of its four synchrotron light sources. About $200 million or nearly one-third of DOE's $650 million budget for basic energy science is spent on the operations of the four machines--Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source ($18 million); Argonne Lab's Advanced Photon Source ($76 million); Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source ($25 million); and the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC ($17 million). Both the ALS and APS are third-generation light sources, so-called because they were designed to make optimal use of high-performance undulator magnets--the premier sources of synchrotron light. The other two machines are older, second-generation light sources whose x-ray beams are not as bright. Nonetheless, all four machines are extensively used because the demand for time on x-ray beamlines across a broad range of R&D efforts is booming. DOE officials acknowledge that current funding levels are insufficient to keep all four facilities operating at capacity and at the same time make plans for new "fourth-generation" light sources.

"They are slicing the salami thinner and thinner," ALS director Brian Kincaid told Science. "All the facilities will cross into the red within a year or two."

The DOE panel is to make recommendations on whether DOE should sacrifice one of the older facilities, and if so, which one. Given the diversity of uses on the newer and older machines, few in the user communities want to see any of the machines shut down. Instead, it has been suggested that since there has been a huge increase in light source use by biological and earth scientists, the National Institutes of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency should share in the costs of beamline operations. Another idea is to separate operations funding from funding the next generation of light sources. The panel's recommendations should be forthcoming at the end of this month.


Spotlight on Education


Prior to her onsite review of Berkeley Lab last week, Martha Krebs (top left), director of Energy Research for DOE, received a demonstration of Hands On Universe from students at Albany High School. Krebs and the AHS students also exchanged on-line greetings with Energy Secretary Federico Peña, who was meeting with students at Livermore. (XBD9709-03484-03) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


Ribbon-Cutting at ALS

A ribbon cutting ceremony at the Advanced Light Source today (Sept. 19) celebrated the opening of the Macromolecular Crystallography Facility. The new facility, which will mainly be used in the study of cell membranes--a critical component of living cells--is scheduled to take its first diffraction patterns this week.

The ceremony's featured guests included Michelle Broido from DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research, which helped fund the beamline, plus Berkeley Lab's Pier Oddone, Sung-Hou Kim, Brian Kincaid, and Graham Fleming. There were also representatives from biotechnology companies who will use the new facility.

A cell's outer membrane is a thin wall of fatty molecules embedded with thousands of assorted proteins whose workings have remained mysterious. With the high flux and brightness x-ray beams provided by the ALS, scientists at the new facility can now use x-ray crystallography to fill in missing details.


In Memoriam--Kazuo Shimada

Kazuo "Kaz" Shimada, a designer in the Engineering Division's Detector Instrumentation Department, died suddenly on Thursday, Aug. 21. He was 53.

Shimada joined the Laboratory in 1978 and became a key player in developing and maintaining the Lab's printed circuit design capability at a level necessary to carry out major instrumentation projects in physics and nuclear science. He made major contributions to the establishment of a dependable computer-aided-drafting capability at a time when that technology was in its infancy. He contributed significantly to the success of a number of major Lab projects ranging from the Time Projection Chamber to Gammasphere. His most recent efforts have been primarily in support of custom integrated circuit and system level designs for high energy physics detector systems.

"Kaz was a dedicated employee and a valued friend among his fellow workers," said Joe Jaklevic, who heads the Detector Instrumentation Department. "He was always willing to give his best effort to help in any situation. His passing is deeply felt by those who worked for him and those who worked with him."

Shimada, a Richmond resident, was one of nine children. He is survived by his wife, Juanita, his children Tia and Darek, four brothers and two sisters, and 44 nieces and nephews.

At the request of the family, donations in Shimada's name may be made to Oakland Barracuda Aquatics, 4200 Park Bldg., Suite 121, Oakland, CA 94602, attn: Greg Graviki.


Kaz Shimada (ZBD9709-03450)


Around the Lab


First J.Michael Nitschke Awards Given to Three of Laboratory's "Unsung Heroes"

Three long-time Lab employees became the first recipients of the J. Michael Nitschke Award for Technical Excellence in a Sept. 15 ceremony in Perseverance Hall. The awards, established this year to honor the unsung heroes behind major scientific discoveries, included a citation and $3,000 cash prize, and were presented by nuclear chemist Albert Ghiorso.

This year's honorees were Donald Syversrud of the Engineering Division, who was cited for his outstanding service as an accelerator technician since 1978 at the Laboratory; Leon Archambault of the Engineering Division, for his impressive and exemplary service as an accelerator technician and engineer at the Lab; and John Meneghetti of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, who played a key role in the construction and operation of the machines of science that have been the backbone of the research performed at the Laboratory.

Syversrud, Ghiorso said, was very active in the tests undertaken to show the feasibility of the Meneghetti cryogenic liner proposed for the Bevatron Vacuum Upgrade needed for the Bevalac project. At the SuperHILAC he became leader of the small group responsible for all of the vacuum systems, and, especially important, the ion sources used in the three injectors. He also worked closely with Nitschke in support of OASIS (On-line Apparatus for SuperHILAC Isotope Separation), a fast, efficient, on-line mass separator for studying radionuclides.

Archambault, who also worked closely with Nitschke, played a central role in the creation of various instruments used for many of the scientific experiements at the HILAC and SuperHILAC. Among these were the OASIS project, and TAS (Total Absorption Spectrometer), a device that could determine the absolute masses of radionuclides. He was involved with the construction of a test facility for producing radioactive ions for use in Nitschke's proposed ISL accelerator complex, and many other projects.

John Meneghetti, who Ghiorso called an "engineering technologist" because of his many talents, participated in the construction of most of the major accelerators at Berkeley (MFE, 88-Inch Cyclotron, ERA, SuperHILAC, BevaLac, and ALS). In doing so, he trained a number of the people who became the skilled core of the accelerator technician group vital to the Laboratory. Particularly noteworthy was his invention of an innovative cryogenic vacuum liner for the Bevatron, which proved crucial to enabling the BevaLac to accelerate very heavy ions with adequate intensity. He worked with Nitschke on many projects in connection with the SuperHILAC and its experiments.

Guest speakers at the Monday afternoon ceremony included Lab Deputy Directors Pier Oddone and Klaus Berkner, and Associate Director-at-Large Glenn Seaborg. The awards ceremony was followed by a well-attended reception.

The J.M. Nitschke award is made through the East Bay Community Foundation, with funds from the estate of the late Michael Nitschke, a long-time physicist in the Nuclear Science Division who died in 1995. A protege of Ghiorso and nuclear chemist Earl Hyde, Nitschke played a prominent role in the discovery of element 106 (seaborgium) and in uncovering the chemical properties of elements 104 and 105 (rutherfordium and hahnium). He was later the driving force behind the concept of accelerating short-lived radioactive nuclides.


Recipients of the first annual J. Michael Nitschke Award for Technical Excellence, presented by nuclear chemist Albert Ghiorso (center), are from left: Donald Syversrud, John Meneghetti, and Leon Archambault. Second from left is Nicole Taylor, development director of the East Bay Community Foundation. (XBD9709-03552-07) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


Lab-Developed Technology Allows Remote Collaborations Throughout DOE Complex

By Jon Bashor

With technical and scientific support from Berkeley Lab, Energy Secretary Federico Peña received a hands-on lesson in the capabilities of the collaborative tools being developed for scientific research by DOE.

Using MBone technology developed here, the tools allow scientists at various DOE sites to remotely access and operate experimental facilities in other parts of the DOE complex. Such tools are a key component of the DOE2000 program to create "laboratories without walls." Participating in the Aug. 28 demonstration was Structural Biology scientist Jeff Pelton and computer scientist Deb Agarwal.

From his office in Calvin Lab, Pelton uses a computer and network connections to remotely operate a spectrometer at Pacific Northwest National Lab in Richland, Wash. The PNNL machine, which cost $2 million and is more powerful than spectrometers at Berkeley Lab, will help Pelton characterize the structure of Heat Shock Factor Protein, a DNA-binding protein. Pelton is just beginning a four-month series of experiments, lasting from five minutes to three days, on samples he sends to the Richland lab.

"Using my workstation and the Internet, I'll log into their spectrometer and see the control screen as if I were sitting at their console," Pelton said. In the process, he will also be actively collaborating with researchers at PNNL. An electronic notebook will allow them to share up-to-the minute lab notes, and data and videoconferencing tools will enable them to do real-time collaborations.

During his visit to PNNL, Peña dropped by the lab where Pelton will be doing his remote-control research. Using audio and video links between computers, Pelton explained to Peña what he'll be doing. Peña congratulated Pelton for adapting to this new way of doing science, adding, "That's terrific."

Working behind the scenes to make sure the Lab, PNNL and a college in Washington were all connected for the demonstration was Agarwal, who is with the Lab's Computer Science Research Department. Agarwal has helped develop some of the collaborative tools in support of DOE2000, a program to make such remote collaborations between scientists an integral part of future research. She has also demonstrated the technology to various DOE audiences.

Jim Myers, project leader for collaboratories at PNNL, said he thinks these tools will have tremendous value. A Ph.D. chemist from Berkeley, Myers said he thinks he can help facilitate more chemistry research developing collaborative tools than by working in a chemistry lab himself. Among the tools Myers has helped developed are the electronic notebook and televiewer that Pelton will use during the course of his work.

"Congratulations for doing a great job," Peña told those linked for the demonstration. "It's very impressive."


From his office in Calvin Lab, researcher Jeff Pelton can remotely operate a spectrometer located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash. (XBD9708-03350-03) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


Currents Online

The full text of each edition of Currents is published on the Lab's home page on the World Wide Web. View it at under "Research News and Publications." To set up your computer to access the World Wide Web, call the Mac and PC Support Group at X6858.


Lab Shows Environmental Good Will at Berkeley Marina

A record number of employees turned out to clean up a strip of Berkeley beach this year as part of the Lab's celebration of Pollution Prevention Week, Sept. 15-19. Nearly 40 volunteers picked up trash, plastic bottles, cans, styrofoam, cigarette butts, and even old clothes along a stretch of beach at the Berkeley Marina.

In a special ceremony following the beach clean-up, the Laboratory presented a check for $25,000 to the City of Berkeley to initiate a project to design and build an unusual demonstration building constructed of straw bales. The building, which is being partially funded by the Laboratory and the Department of Energy, will be used to house the new Shorebird Park Environmental Learning Center. The proposed building will be a showcase of environmentally sensitive building technologies. For more about the straw bale building, see the Oct. 3 issue of Currents.


Lab Deputy Director Klaus Berkner presents a check for $25,000 dollars to Lisa Carronna, acting director of the Shorebird Nature Center. (XBD9709-03579-20)


Nearly 40 employees (right and above right) turned out to clean up a strip of Berkeley beach, for which they earned a new Berkeley Lab Open House T-shirt. (XBD9709-03579-32 & XBD9709-03579-17)


Bulletin Board


Open House Promises Great Lectures, Tours, and Activities

One of the highlights of the upcoming Berkeley Lab Open House on Oct. 18 will be a series of lectures by Lab researchers. Visitors attending the three featured talks will gain a better understanding of what's ahead in computing, in the search for a cure for breast cancer, and even the vast reaches of the universe. These lectures, and two others sponsored by the high-energy physics program, will be among the highlights of this year's smorgasbord of offerings available to the curious and the captivated.

Astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter, whose work on supernovas has gained international attention, will open the series at 11 a.m. with his assessment of "The Fate of the Universe." He will be followed at 1:30 p.m. by Bill McCurdy, associate laboratory director for Computing Sciences, who will address "The Future of Computing: Hitting the Wall or Breaking New Ground?" At 3 p.m., Mina Bissell, division director for Life Sciences, will reprise much of her popular 1995 talk by addressing "Breast Cancer: Can Tumor Cells Be Rehabilitated?"

All lectures will take place in the Bldg. 50 auditorium and will last one hour, including time for questions from the audience.

A supplementary pair of informal half-hour talks in Conference Room A of Bldg. 50 will focus on two physics subjects: "X-ray Imaging: Photographing the Invisible" by Mats Danielsson at 10:30 a.m.; and "A Woman in the World of High-Energy Physics" by Young Kee Kim at 2 p.m.

In addition to the range of tours, exhibits and children's activities being planned for the 10 a.m.-to-4 p.m. program, two guided woodland walks have been scheduled--one at 11 a.m. focusing on the flora and fauna of Berkeley Lab's hillside setting, and another at 2 p.m. looking at the Laboratory's reduction of wildfire risks. Interested walkers should sign up that morning at the welcome tent in the cafeteria parking lot.

An entire schedule of activities will be available and posted next week on the Laboratory's website. The Oct. 3 issue of Currents will offer a complete preview of the Open House, including program highlights, parking and traffic plans, and health and safety requirements.

Also, Open House t-shirts are now being sold in the cafeteria lobby.


Rideshare Week Oct. 6-10

The Laboratory encourages you to join thousands of commuters taking part in California Rideshare Week, Oct. 6-10. Pledge to carpool, vanpool, take public transit, ride a bike, or walk at least once a week and you'll be eligible to win a trip for two to Hawaii or Mexico, a mountain bike, a weekend getaway, and much more.

Just fill out a pledge form to participate. Pledge forms will be distributed to all mail stops. The following locations will also have Rideshare pledge forms and envelopes for completed forms.

Bldg. 65, Bus stop
Bldg. 54, Cafeteria lobby/bus stop
Bldg. 76, Main office
Bldg. 90, Front door
Bldg. 69, Commute information counter
Bldg. 62, Front door, lobby

On Tuesday, Sept. 30, there will be a representative from RIDES in the cafeteria lobby from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. If you hand your pledge form in to the representative, you will receive a complimentary commuter mug.


Trout Fishing Derby

Berkeley Lab's Outdoor Club is sponsoring a trout derby at San Pablo Reservoir on Satuday, Sept. 27. The angler landing the biggest trout will win a prize. Tickets are $1 each. For details and reservations contact Al Harcourt (X7660), Bruce MacDonell (X6476), or Ed Tully (X5907).


National Hispanic Heritage Month

In celebration of National Hispanic Heritage Month, the Laboratory is sponsoring a musical performance by the group Mariachi Tapatio at noon on Tuesday, Sept. 23, on the cafeteria lawn. The event is being arranged with help from the Latino and Native American Association, in coordination with the Work Force Diversity Office.


LabVIEW User Group Meeting

There will be a LabVIEW user group meeting at the Laboratory at noon on Wednesday, Sept. 24, in the Bldg. 50 auditorium. An introduction and overview of new products by Bill Harrold, district sales manager at National Instruments, will be followed by a user presentation by Greg Jones of the EH&S Dosimetry Department. He will discuss his use of the IMAQ Vision tools in Berkeley Lab's Automated CR-39 counting system using LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision neutron dosimetry.

The user group meeting is free, but seating is limited. For reservations, call (512) 794-0100, or send e-mail to


Last Call For Craft Fair Entries

So far more than 50 people have signed up to sell their crafts at the upcoming Berkeley Lab employee craft fair. The event will be held from 4 to 7 p.m. on Friday, Nov. 21, in the cafeteria. Items to be offered for sale include holiday ornaments, handmade clothing (including hats, jackets and scarves), jewelry, pottery and porcelain, baked goodies and candy. Santa is scheduled to stop by and join in the fun, too.

Participants in the fair are limited to Lab employees and retirees. To reserve a table, contact Kathy Ellington (X4931 or by Tuesday, Sept. 30.


Extra EH&S Course Added

An additional Chemical Hygiene and Safety Training course (EHS 348) has been added to the EH&S training calendar. The two-hour course is scheduled for 9-11 a.m. on Wednesday, Sept. 24, in Bldg. 51-201. Call X5999 to register for the course.


TEID Offers Onsite Poster Printing

Do you need posters for poster sessions, presentations, or display purposes? TEID now provides poster printing services onsite with fast turn-around. The service includes printing color posters that are approximately 36" wide by any length. The finished prints are laminated to protect the surface and can be rolled up into a 3"x36" mailer tube for easy carrying, or mounted on black or white non-bending gatorboard for wall or easel display.

TEID staff can design and print a poster from start to finish or work with a file for poster output. For more information, contact TEID at 495-ARTS.

Rates for Poster Services


Derek Clark of the TEID Photo Lab pulls a poster-sized image out of the department's NovaJet printer. (XBD9709-03359-01) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt


Calendar of Events

Calendar of Events at Berkeley Lab


The Berkeley Lab Calendar is published biweekly here on the World Wide Web and in Currents by the Public Information Department. Employees can list a meeting, class, or event in the Calendar by using this submission form. The deadline for submissions is 5 p.m. on Monday in the week that Currents is published.

In addition to the events listed below, Berkeley Lab's Washington, D.C. Projects office is hosting a Science and Technology Seminars series. 

Scientific Conferences





In celebration of National Hispanic Heritage Month, there will be a musical performance by the group Mariachi Tapatio at noon on the cafeteria lawn.

WED., SEPT. 24


There will be a LabVIEW user group meeting at noon in the Bldg. 50 auditorium. An introduction and overview of new products by Bill Harrold, district sales manager at National Instruments, will be followed by a user presentation by Greg Jones of the EH&S Dosimetry Department. For reservations, call (512) 794-0100, or send e-mail to


Starting today, from 11:30 12:30 a.m., and continuing each Wednesday in a pilot program, Berkeley TRIP commute store will have its "Tripmobile" in the Lab's cafeteria parking lot to allow employees to purchase AC Transit, BART, and other commute tickets.



7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m., Bldg. 54 parking lot.

SAT., SEPT. 27


The Lab's Outdoor Club is sponsoring a trout fishing derby at San Pablo Reservoir. See page six for more information.



A representative from RIDES for Bay Area Commuters will be in the cafeteria lobby from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. to distribute information and receive pledge cards from employees who pledge to commute at least one day a week. At the same time, members of the Lab's Bicycle Coalition will be in the cafeteria parking lot to demonstrate how to use the Lab shuttle bus bike racks.



From 11:30 12:30 a.m., Berkeley TRIP commute store will have its "Tripmobile" in the Lab's cafeteria parking lot to allow employees to purchase AC Transit, BART, and other commute tickets.


Seminars & Lectures

MON., SEPT. 22


"Magnetic Multilayers" will be presented by Zi Quing Qui of UCB at 3:30 p.m. in Bldg. 2-100B.


"The Eighteen Arbitrary Parameters of the Standard Model in Your Everyday Life" will be presented by Robert Cahn of the Physics Division at 4:30 p.m. in 1 Le Conte; refreshments, 4 p.m. in 275 Le Conte.



"The DARHT Accelerator Project and Berkeley Lab" will be presented by Henry Rutkowski of AFRD at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room.



"Model-Based HVAC Fault Detection and Diagnosis" will be presented by Philip Haves of the EET Division at noon in Bldg. 90-3075.


"Charge Transfer Dynamics at Surfaces in the (Sub)Femto second Range: New Information from Experiments with Third Generation Synchrotron Radiation Sources" will be presented by D. Menzel of the Technical University of Munich, Germany, at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 auditorium.

FRI., SEPT. 26


John Byrd of the ALS will speak at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room, title to be announced.



"High Q2 Tests of QCD at D0" will be presented by Brad Abbott of the New York University at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5132; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.



"Surface Science Studies of Model Catalysts: Promoters, Poisons and Structural Modifiers" will be presented by Jan Hrbek of BNL at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 auditorium.

FRI., OCT. 3


"Experiments on the Fast Beam-Ion Instability at the ALS" will be presented by Frank Zimmermann of SLAC at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room.

Items for the calendars may be sent via e-mail to, faxed to X6641 or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the Oct. 3 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, Sept. 29.


C a f e t e r i a M e n u s

Flea Market


'70 MERCEDES 250, 200K mi., body needs TLC, all else strong, $1500. Alan, X6752

'84 CHEVY Citation, V6, 2-dr HB, a/t, a/c, p/s, p/b, cruise control, new battery & brakes, runs great, $1500/b.o. Gao, X5315, 993-0368

'86 FORD pickup F150, 1/2-ton, long bed, 5 liter V8, EFI, 4-spd a/t, dual tanks, p/b, p/s, a/c, insulated shell, AM/FM, bench seat. tlr. hitch, hvy suspension, $2900. Terry, X4803, 558-8388

'88 DODGE Colt, 4-dr, p/b, p/s, a/c, AM/FM, deluxe int., gd cond., $2100. Terry, X4803, 558-8388

'88 FORD Escort GL, gray, 5-dr hatchbk, a/t, p/s, p/b, AM/FM, 76K mi., body slightly scratched, gd cond., $1350/b.o. 549-2438

'88 MAZDA 929, gd cond., all power, new tires, brakes & ignition, 108K mi., $5900/b.o. 933-1747 (eve.)

'89 TOYOTA Corolla, 4-dr, a/t, 124K mi., runs great, $4200/b.o. 527-1108

'90 ISUZU Impulse, 5-spd, a/c, AM/FM cass., 136K mi., 1 owner, $2500. X6896

MOTORCYCLE, '93 Yamaha Virago 535, very low mi., $3K/b.o. X7030


S.F. OPERA: Pelleas et Melisande, Sun., 11/23, 1 p.m., 2 seats in Row A, Balcony, $47 ea. Gil, X6802, 376-1435

S.F. OPERA, Pelleas et Melisande, Sat. eve., 11/29, & possibly other Sat. eve. operas, balcony pr., row B center, $94/pr. 526-3519


DMA CONTROLLER (NB-DMA2800) for Macintosh, National Instruments Company NuBus. Jacob, X4606, Jon, (415) 476-3252

FUTON, pine frame, queen or king sz.; sm. color TV; VCR; pine coffee table; pine shelves. Christa & Harrie, 653-5863 (msg.)

GARAGE for automobile, short term only. Patti, X5151


BABY JOGGER running stroller, extra tall, blue, fair cond., $50/b.o. Amelia, X5236

BEDROOM SET, 5-pc., Victorian style, queen headboard, 2 night stands w/two drawers, highboy w/5 full drwrs, wide dresser w/9 drwrs & lg. mirror, high quality, exc. cond., must sell, $975/b.o. Bob, (707) 226-1423

BUTCHER BLOCK microwave stand, $75; skis, Rossignol 190cm w/Tyrolia 290 bindings, $125; Rossignol poles, $15. Auben, X4796, 245-0343

CAMERA, Yashica T4 Super Weatherproof, w/Zeiss Tessar 35mm lens, top-rated point-&-shoot camera, new, unused, w/warranty, $160/b.o. James, X5670

CLUBHOUSE, Play-n-Fold by Today's Kids, $40; Gerry cradle & changing table, nat. maple finish, $55 ea., all exc. cond. Peter, X7653

COUCH (seats 3) & love seat, 1 yr. old, $250; entertainment center, can hold 25" TV, $180. X5364, 527-6586

ELECTRIC STOVE, 30" wide (standard sz.), exc. cond., almond w/black front w/clock/timer, $200/b.o. Nance, x7328

Garage sale, Sat. 9/20, 10 a.m.-4 p.m., 1316 Solono Ave @ Pomona St., Albany, fund-raiser for El Cerrito-Albany Masters Swim Team.

Golf clubs, Calloway, exc. cond., W3, W5, W7, $70 ea., cash. Ulli, x5363

IMAGE SCANNER, Canon, color #IX-4015, 1-1/2 yr. old, used once, scan & copy in color or b&w, all documents from spreadsheets to photos, orig. $825, sell for $500/b.o. Gina, 283-2874

KITCHEN TABLE, black metal frame w/smoke glass top, 6 chairs w/multicolor cushions, gd cond., $350 new, asking $200. Denise, X7331, 532-0782

OFFICE DESK, very gd cond., wooden, 5' long, 30" wide, 29" high, w/5 drws, $50. Rob or Song, X5798, 524-3182 (eve.)

RADIAL ARM SAW, Dewalt 77, 12", exc. cond., $350. Jonathan, X4148

REFRIGERATOR, Frigidaire, 18 cu. ft., runs fine, 17 yr. old, $125/b.o. X5803, 280-0868

SNOWBOARD, Noah Salesnak SIMS, sz. 153, gd cond., $180/b.o. Ana-Sophia, 883-1844

TABLE, Southwest-style, octagonal, w/4 chairs, $120 set (or chairs for $80, table $50); sofa, oversized, off-white tweed, w/ottoman, gd cond., $115; 3-man tent in orig. box, never used, $25; sm. & med. sz. elec. baseboard heaters, $35 & $45; 1930s oak pedestal desk, needs refinishing, $85; worn but comfy rocker/recliner, off-white fabric, $20; sm. 2-tier computer table, finished yellow pine, $45; sand box/wading pool, $20; other kid's toys. Chris, X5507, 845-3562

YARD SALE, 6861 Wilton Dr., Oakland, Sat., 9/27, 9:00 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., Wilton is the continuation of Ascot Dr. when it crosses Skyline Blvd., in Montclair, lots of baby & kid items, grownup stuff too.


BERKELEY, nr Oxford/Cedar, furn., 2-bdrm, 2-bth apt., avail. 10/4-6/15. 524-8122

BERKELEY, short-term sublet, furn. studio apt, top-floor of 1920s bldg., view, hardwd flrs, laundry fac., on-st. parking, linens, dishes etc., avail. 11/17, $660/mo. incl. phone & utils. Sarah, X7283

BERKELEY, Elmwood area, furn. 1-bdrm + flat, sunny, walk to UCB, split level, hill view from lg. terrace, linen, dishes, hi-fi, TV, VCR, microwave, garage, avail. for 1 yr. +, prefer 1 resp., mature, neat & nonsmoking visiting scholar, $825/mo. 843-6325

NO. BERKELEY, Spruce nr Hearst, furn. studio apt., sublet 10/21 - 12/21, 1 min. walk to LBNL shuttle/UCB, hardwd flr, fully equ. kitchen, laundry fac., TV, prefer neat & responsible person, no pets, non-smoking, $700/mo.+utils. Erhard, 549-1772

EL SOBRANTE, share furn. rm in 3-bdrm house, sunny, view, light kitchen privs., prefer quiet, non-smoker, no pets, 15 mi. from LBNL, $450/mo. utils. incl. 644-8164

WALNUT CREEK, lg., 2-bdrm, 2-1/2 bth townhouse, garage, frpl, pool, patio, nr BART, $1100/mo. 376-2211

WANTED: Swiss linguist needs a rm & bath from early Feb. thru late May. Dave, X7344, Dave or Sally, 524-2904,

WANTED: 2 or 3 bedroom house for 6 mo. to 1 yr. rental, within El Cerrito/Albany/ Kensington/Berk/Oak/Emeryville area. Mary, 642-5205,

WANTED: mature, quiet, non-smoking male scientist, no pets, seeks furn/unfurn. rm, studio or home share, quiet neighborhood nr LBNL/UCB, start late Sept., under $600. Deane, X5063, 849-2675,

WANTED: 3 bdrm house/apt in Berkeley or surrounding areas for scientist w/wife & 3 children (3, 6 & 8), coming from France 8/12, would like to rent for 1-2 yr., max. rent $1500/mo. Philippe, X7030

Real Estate

EUREKA, CA, 3-bdrm, 1.5 bth home, lg. yd, sunny family rm, lg. attic, attached 2-car garage, deck, central heat, in town w/mountain view, senior friendly, retirement, vacation or relocation. Dave, X6215

OAKLAND, Grand Lake, 2-bdrm, 1-1/2 bth, top flr condo, secure bldg., parking, pool, nr trans., $79K. Dale, X5988, 547-2356

SONOMA COAST, 2.16 acres, Timbercove, Ft. Ross area, all utils. Nick, 527-1965


BAHAMAS, Taino Beach Resort, 1-bdrm condo, slps 4, every amenity, pool/tennis, on beach, maid service, min. 60 days adv. notice, $500/wk. X6005

HAWAII, 20 mi. below Hilo on rainy side of Big Island, convenient to Univ. of Hawaii & orchid plantation, 2-bdrm, 2-bth house, nr schools, shopping & rec. center, 1 mi. to ocean bluff, $450/mo., possible lease-option to buy for $58K. X6005

OREGON COAST, furn., 3-bdrm, 2-bth house, attached garage, nr beach on edge of sm. town, avail. 10/15 thru 6/15/98, $700/mo. 525-7543

SO. LAKE TAHOE, Tahoe Keys, 3-bdrm, 2.5 bth house, on the water, boat dock, fenced yd, quiet area but nr attractions, water & mountains views. 376-2211

For Free

DOG, Great Dane, 5-1/2 yr. old Blue Dane, female, needs loving home, indoor/outdoor pet, housebroken, playful. Donna, X4363

KITTENS (4), to loving homes, 2 black (1 female, 1 male), 1 tabby male, and 1 white flamepoint male w/grn eyes. Bonnie, 893-6346

Flea Market Deadline

Flea Market items may be sent via Quickmail, e-mailed to, faxed to X6641, or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the Oct. 3 issue is 5 p.m. Friday, Sept. 26.


Berkeley Lab Currents

Published twice a month by the Public Information Department for the employees and retirees of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Ron Kolb, PID department head.

EDITOR: Mary Bodvarsson, X4014,

STAFF WRITERS: Jeffery Kahn, X4019; Paul Preuss, 6249; Lynn Yarris, X5375

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Jon Bashor, 5849; Allan Chen, X6249; Monica Friedlander, X5122

PRODUCTION: Alice Ramirez

FLEA MARKET / CALENDAR: Mary Padilla, X5771 /

Public Information Department, Berkeley Lab, MS 65A

One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720

Tel: 510/486-5771 Fax: 510/486-6641

Berkeley Lab is managed by the University of California

for the U.S. Department of Energy


Flea Market Ad Policy

Due to the large volume of ads received each week, ads are accepted only from LBNL employees, retirees, and on-site DOE personnel. No other ads will be accepted. We encourage other readers to use local services such as LBNL's online housing listing (call X6198 for information), and the UC Housing Office.

Please note also:


Currents/The View and the Communications Department Staff

Published once a month by the Communications Department for the employees and retirees of Berkeley Lab.

Reid Edwards, Public Affairs Department head
Ron Kolb, Communications Department head

Pamela Patterson, 486-4045,
Associate editor
Lyn Hunter, 486-4698,

Dan Krotz, 486-4019
Paul Preuss, 486-6249
Lynn Yarris, 486-5375

Ucilia Wang, 495-2402
Allan Chen, 486-4210
David Gilbert, (925) 296-5643

Caitlin Youngquist, 486-4020
Creative Services Office

Berkeley Lab
Communications Department
MS 65, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720
(510) 486-5771
Fax: (510) 486-6641

Berkeley Lab is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Flea Market is now online at


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