October 4, 2002 Search the Currents Archive

Saul Perlmutter Wins E. O. Lawrence Award

By Paul Preuss

Saul Perlmutter of the Lab’s Physics Division has won the Department of Energy’s 2002 E. O. Lawrence Award in the physics category. He is Berkeley Lab’s 25th recipient of the prestigious award, which includes a gold medal and $25,000.

Perlmutter will be cited at the awards ceremony in Washington D.C. on Oct. 28 “for his leading contributions to an unexpected discovery of extraordinary importance: the determination, through the careful study of distant supernovae, that the expansion of the universe is speeding up rather than slowing down.”

“We are proud that the techniques for measuring cosmic expansion were developed and proven at Berkeley Lab under Saul’s leadership of the Supernova Cosmology Project,” said Lab Director Charles V. Shank. “His Lawrence Award recognizes the kind of imaginative basic research done here to address the most fundamental questions about nature, yielding knowledge whose benefits we may only begin to imagine.”

The Lawrence Awards, recognizing achievements in atomic research, broadly defined, were established by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1959 as a memorial to Ernest Lawrence, and are chosen by independent panels from thousands of nominations by scientists and research organizations.

In addition to Perlmutter’s award in physics, this year’s winners are: in chemistry, Keith O. Hodgson of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; in environmental science and technology, Benjamin D. Santer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; in life sciences, Claire M. Fraser of the Institute for Genomic Research; in materials research, C. Jeffrey Brinker of Sandia National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico; in national security, Bruce T. Goodwin of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; and in nuclear technology, Paul J. Turinsky of North Carolina State University.

The fundamental questions

“What is true about the world no matter where, no matter when?” is the kind of question that has fascinated Saul Perlmutter since childhood. After graduating magna cum laude in physics from Harvard in 1981, he headed for graduate work at UC Berkeley, where he soon realized that to pursue such fundamental questions in high-energy physics would require vast machines “and involve hundreds of people. So I thought it would be fun to try astrophysics.”

Perlmutter’s subsequent accomplishments owe much to the practical methods he and his colleagues devised for using supernovae as “standard candles” to measure the cosmic expansion rate. “In the early days, people thought measuring expansion with supernovae would be hard,” Perlmutter says. Different kinds of supernovae explode in different ways, and it wasn’t apparent that any were really “standard.”

Perlmutter and Carl Pennypacker were postdocs in the group headed by Berkeley Lab and UCB physicist Richard Muller when they came up with the idea of using newly identified Type Ia supernovae to measure cosmic expansion. Skeptical at first, Muller nevertheless supported the two in founding what was to become the Supernova Cosmology Project.

The Supernova Cosmology Project — the early days

Competition for telescope time among astronomers was (and still is) fierce. Sensitive CCDs, charge-coupled devices, were fast replacing photographic plates in astronomy at the time, and Perlmutter and Pennypacker found an Australian observatory willing to trade observing time for a custom-made CCD camera with a novel wide-area design.

The Supernova Cosmology Project led by Saul Perlmutter discovered that, while the early universe may have been dense enough to slow expansion, as mass thinned out gravity was overwhelmed by the mysterious dark energy, and is now stretching apart at an ever-faster pace. Image: NASA/STScI

“In exchange for building the camera we got 12 nights, spaced over many months,” Perlmutter says. “The weather was good for just two and a half of those nights.”

They found a Type Ia candidate, but “you couldn’t prove you’d found a supernova unless you could get access to a big telescope, and you couldn’t get access to a big telescope unless you could prove you’d found a supernova.”

Years passed before, in 1994, the Supernova Cosmology Project — by then based at Berkeley Lab and grown to include members from around the world — had finally managed to scrounge enough telescope time to prove it could produce large numbers of “supernovae on demand.”

“The key was to clump the observations,” Perlmutter explains. By searching the same group of galaxies three weeks apart, the researchers could guarantee four to eight supernovae each session, “and all of them would be on the way up” — growing brighter instead of already fading.

Their success inspired others who had initially been skeptical. By 1998 the Supernova Cosmology Project and the competing High-Z Supernova Search Team came to a conclusion that both had initially resisted: the expansion of the universe is not slowing, as everyone had assumed. On the contrary.

The discovery that the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace revolutionized cosmology. Apparently some mysterious “dark energy” drives cosmic acceleration and constitutes two-thirds of the density of the universe; the nature of dark energy is one of the most significant questions facing high-energy physics in the 21st century.

“This discovery was very much a team effort,” Perlmutter stresses, citing the efforts of the Supernova Cosmology Project’s individual members in theoretical studies of supernova dynamics, the detection of supernovae near and far, data analysis and interpretation, and other research components.

Moreover, Perlmutter says, the sustained effort that led to the breakthrough was possible because of Berkeley Lab’s unique status as a national laboratory. “It was the freedom to look ahead that the Lab offered. No one knew if the effort would work, and it was 10 years before there was a result. Where else could you find the support to do that?”

Open House 2002

Doors Open Tomorrow at 10

We planned, we met, we organized, we sent out the invitations. Now it’s up to our visitors to judge, as Berkeley Lab opens its doors for Open House 2002 tomorrow morning at 10 a.m. An estimated 5,000 people are expected to come up the Hill to partake in tours, exhibits, lectures and entertainment. See a complete schedule of the day’s lectures, activities and special events below. Everyone’s invited, so bring your friends and family and help make this Open House the best ever.

Open House Lectures Activities Schedule

Lectures & Talks

10:30 AM
What Is the Fate of the Universe?
Presenter: Saul Perlmutter
Main Auditorium

11:00 AM
Glenn T. Seaborg: Scientist, Educator, Statesman
Presenter: Heino Nitsche
Seaborg Conference Room

11:00 AM
Cells on Parade
Speaker: Carolyn Larabell
ALS Conference Room

11:15 AM
Of Mice and Women: Research
in the Biology of Breast Cancer
Presenter: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
Main Auditorium

12:00 PM
Imaging the Structure of Life: Right Down to the Atoms
Presenter: James Holton
ALS Conference Room

12:30 PM
Colors of the Cosmos
Lawrence Hall of Science
Main Auditorium

1:00 PM
The ALS Engineering Story: How to Build a $110 Million
Synchrotron in 10 Easy Steps
Presenter: Art Ritchie
ALS Conference Room

1:30 PM
What’s the Matter with Anti-Matter?
Presenter: Natalie Roe
Seaborg Conference Room

2:00 PM
Chem-Bio Threats: Protecting
Building Occupants
Presenter: Ashok Gadgil
Main Auditorium

2:00 PM
The ALS: A Source of Light a Million Times Brighter than the Sun
Presenter: Christophe Steier
ALS Conference Room

2:15 PM
Global Warming Is Real, But Is it Our Fault?
Presenter: Dan Karner
Seaborg Conference Room

2:45 PM
Promise of the Nano-World
Presenter: Paul Alivisatos
Main Auditorium

3:00 PM
Studying the Sun and Solving Physics 2 km Underground
Presenter: Kevin Lesko
Seaborg Conference Room

3:30 PM
Supercomputers and the Fate of the Universe
Presenter: Peter Nugent
Main Auditorium

Tours & Walks

Berkeley Lab Overview
Every half hour (:00 and :30)
Bus leaves from Building 50 kiosk

Advanced Light Source
10:30 AM to 3:30 PM
ALS Lobby, Bus Stop 7

Fusion Energy and Superconducting Magnets
Building 58

88-inch Cyclotron
Building 88, Bus Stop 2

National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM)
Building 72, Bus Stop 4

Engineering Shops
Building 77, Bus Stop 6

Lighting Laboratory
11 AM and 2 PM
Building 46

Nano-fabrication Laboratory
Every half hour, :15 and :45
Building 2

Microscopy and the Laser Lab
1:30 and 3:30 PM
Building 2-355A

Computing Grid Node and ESNet
Continuous, Building 50

Nature Walks
1:00 AM and 2:00 PM
Safety Central Tent, Bus Stop 3

Special Events

Teacher Award Ceremony
12:00 PM, Bandstand

Seaborg Room Dedication
11:45 PM, Building 70A

Movie: “The ATLAS Experiment”
10:30 AM, 1:00 PM
Seaborg Conference Room

Movie: “The Search for Heavy Elements”
12:30 PM
Seaborg Conference Room

Movie: “The Joy of Discovery”
11:00 AM, 2:30 PM, 3:15 PM
Main Auditorium


· Eva Nogales: 10:30 AM
The Skeletal Structure of Living Cells

· Michael Siminovitch: 11:00 AM
A Better Way to Light Up the Darkness

· Jim Bishop: 11:30 AM
The Mysterious Chemistry of the Sea

· Ashok Gadgil: 1:00 PM
A Portable Water Purifier that Saves Children’s Lives

· Carolyn Larabell: 1:30 PM
The Secrets Inside Living Cells

· Keith Jackson: 2:00 PM
Carving With Light

· Kunxin Lu: 2:30 PM
Normal Cells that Turn Cancerous

· David Bailey, 3:00 PM
The Randomness of the
Digits of Pi

Exhibits & Activity Centers

Welcome and Orientation
Welcome Tent (Bus Arrival)
Bus Stop 1

Safety Central
(Environment, Health and Safety, Fire Trucks, Nature Walks)
"Z" Lot, Bus Stop 3

Career Fair, Cafeteria

(Physics, Nuclear Science, Accelerator and Fusion Research)
Building 70 Lot

Plan-It Earth (Environmental Energy
Technologies, Earth Sciences)
ALS Lot, Bus Stop 7

Family Science Zone
(Hands-on Educational Activities for Kids)
Building 50 Lot

Life Sciences and Genomics
(Junior Gene Sleuths, Microscopy)
Building 84, Bus Stop 5

The Shops (Electronic Petting Zoo
Robot Corral, Model Design)
Building 77, Bus Stop 6

Teachers’ Workshops
Building 2, Room 100

Cell Death and Resurrection in 3-D

By Paul Preuss

Most cells in higher organisms know when it’s time to die, for the good of the whole multicellular being. But tumor cells infamously resist death, whether from chemotherapeutic drugs or the body’s own immune system; finding out how is a major goal of medical and biological research.

A new study published in the September 2002 issue of Cancer Cell shows that 3-D cellular structures like those in the breast confer resistance to cell death in both normal and tumor cells. Valerie Weaver of the University of Pennsylvania’s Department of Pathology and Laboratory Science and Institute for Medicine and Engineering authored the study in collaboration with Mina Bissell of Berkeley Lab’s Life Sciences Division and other colleagues; the work had its beginning when Weaver was a postdoctoral fellow in Bissell’s laboratory.

When cells refuse to die

Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is the process by which organisms remodel their tissues and rid themselves of diseased and other dangerous cells. Despite what’s known about the regulation of apoptosis in individual cells, tumors remain puzzling.

“Multidrug resistance of tumors is a major problem facing the treatment of cancer,” Weaver says, adding that an important part of the puzzle involves the way cells are organized in tissues.

“Cells need to be studied in the context of their environment, in which growth factors, hormones, and the extracellular matrix, or ECM, all play vital parts,” says Bissell. “When forming tissues, you need the right kind of cross-talk among all these signalling molecules.”

But three-dimensional architectures are lost in two-dimensional cell cultures, one reason the vital role shape plays in cellular function has long been obscured.

A model of living tissue

To study resistance to apoptosis, Weaver, Bissell and their colleagues used an exceptional 3-D model of tissue from cultured human breast cells, in which nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells (cells that form linings) attach to “reconstituted basement membrane,” a form of the extracellular matrix.

“As far as normal cells are concerned, it used to be thought that the ECM was needed just to provide a scaffold,” Bissell says. “But it does much more: it communicates powerful signals that affect cell behavior and tissue organization.”

Fluorescent images of 3-D cell structures grown in reconstituted basement membrane: when their polarity is perturbed, nonmalignant cells lose their resistance to apoptosis (left). But disorganized malignant cells, unresistant to begin with, become resistant after acquiring polar organization (right).

The reconstituted basement membrane in the 3-D model is similar to that in a living organism. It induces nonmalignant cells to form hollow spheroids — “polarized” structures that, as Bissell puts it, “know which way is up.”

Remarkably, the cells in these spheroids are resistant to apoptosis. By contrast, malignant cells proliferate in disorganized aggregates, vulnerable to cell death from a variety of agents.

The polar structures in the model resemble organoids in living mammary tissue called acini (Latin for berries), which secrete milk. Weaver emphasizes that it is not necessary to create working acini in order to confer resistance to cell death: the key is polarity itself.

In the model, disorganized malignant-cell aggregates can be made to “revert,” forming polarized structures through interaction with the reconstituted basement membrane. Once they have done so, they too become resistant to apoptosis. In 2-D cultures, however, both malignant and nonmalignant cells are equally vulnerable to cell death.

How could 3-D make such a crucial difference? The molecular pathways by which cells communicate and attach to the basement membrane not only influence polarity but hold the key to resistance to apoptosis.

The dynamics of tissue structure

Receptors (b-integrins) in the cell’s membrane trigger the formation of complexes that fasten the cell’s cytoskeleton to the reconstituted basement membrane — the first step in forming a polar structure.

This activates an important transcription factor inside the cells (NFkB), a protein that plays a central role in protecting cells against death stimuli — whether from anticancer drugs or the body’s own immune system.

“The molecular pathway by which tumors become resistant is the same molecular pathway that creates polarity, the organization of three-dimensional spheroids,” Weaver says.

Many clinical results become easier to understand. For example, breast cancer patients who express excessive amounts of the proteins involved in the formation of polar structures have the poorest prognosis.

“You need only 10 percent of the cells in a tumor to be drug resistant to be in danger of defeating chemotherapy,” says Weaver.

Bissell says, “This underlines the importance of the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane — in this case, too much basement membrane is as bad as too little.”

The new results have important ramifications for cancer research in examining the role of polar structures in other kinds of drug resistance and cancer cell migration, and in testing new drugs.

“It’s easy to forget, when growing cells in culture, that structure has significance,” Bissell says. “You can’t test new cancer drugs in humans, but to test them only in 2-D is foolish.”

In addition to Weaver and Bissell, the study is co-authored by Sophie Lelièvre, Jonathan N. Lakins, Micah A. Chrenek, Jonathan C. R. Jones, Filippo Giancotti, and Zena Werb.

Water Molecules Star in Action Movies

By Lynn Yarris

Berkeley Lab scientists have produced the first ever action movies starring individual water molecules on a metal surface. The ending was a surprise even to the producers.

This graphic shows the trajectory of the STM tip as it tracks a water molecule in its random hopping from one nearest-neighbor lattice point to another across the crystal of a palladium surface. The image was produced at 52.4 Kelvin.

Working with a unique scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a team led by Miquel Salmeron, a physicist with the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), cooled the surface of a single crystal of palladium, a good catalyst for reactions involving hydrogen and water, to a temperature of about 40 Kelvins (-233 degrees Celsius) in an ultrahigh vacuum. Water molecules were then introduced onto this surface and their motion was tracked with the STM. As expected from previous studies, single molecules migrated across the surface to aggregate into clusters of two (dimers), three (trimers), four (tetramers), five (pentamers), and six (hexamers). The surprise came when the scientists were able to watch the molecules as they moved.

“Isolated water molecules moved by hopping from one lattice point (on the substrate’s crystal) to the nearest neighboring point, whereupon if they collided with another water molecule they began to form clusters,” says Salmeron. “The speed with which the molecules moved increased by four orders of magnitude when dimers were formed. The mobility of trimers and tetramers was also very high compared to the isolated molecules.”

This ran contrary to the usual storyline in which single molecules diffuse or move across a surface more rapidly than clusters. Salmeron likens the situation to pulling either one skater across the ice or a group of skaters connected by a line.

“Since each skater rubs against the surface of the ice, to pull them all together means a lot of rubbing,” he says. “The situation can be quite different, however, when the sliding takes place over a corrugated surface, like atoms sliding over the atomic landscape of a surface.”

What he and his colleagues observed in their movies was that the hydrogen bonds which held two, three or four water molecules together in a cluster forced the cluster into a geometric configuration that was mismatched with the lattice of the palladium surface. The individual water molecules within these clusters could no longer be bound to the palladium’s lattice points with the same strength as when they were isolated. This allowed dimers, trimers and tetramers to easily slide across the palladium’s surface.

When clusters reached five water molecules in size, however, the combined strength of the water-substrate bonds prevailed and the movement of the pentamers slowed or stopped altogether. The addition of a sixth water molecule created highly stable hexamer rings, which spread out as a hexagonal honeycomb structure over the palladium substrate. This, too, brought a surprise.

Explains Salmeron, “The hexagonal honeycomb of water molecules does not exactly match palladium’s lattice, and as a result, honeycombs grow to a certain size and then stop, forming islands across the substrate’s surface. As additional water molecules are introduced, they pile up on top of these islands. Slight heating will break these islands up into holes that form beautiful patterns, like nanometer-scale snow flakes.”

Working with Salmeron on this study were Toshi Mitsui and Frank Ogletree, both with MSD, and UC Berkeley students Mark Rose and Evgeni Fomin. Their results were reported in the Sept. 13 issue of Science.

A lot of time, effort and money goes into water-proofing materials so they don’t stain, mildew, rust, or suffer any of the other damages that can happen when something gets wet. The interaction of water with surfaces drives a wide variety of important phenomena that include wetting, corrosion, ice melting, electrochemistry, dissolution, and solvation. Such interactions are equally important to many biological processes as well. Despite the broad concern, the interactions of individual water molecules with surfaces have remained somewhat of a scientific enigma.

“Numerous fundamental questions regarding the adsorption of water on surfaces and its evolution from isolated molecules to clusters, complete layers, and beyond, remain unanswered,” says Salmeron. “Structural probes that analyze cluster formation do not address the important issue of the movement of water on surfaces.”

An STM is the ideal instrument for studying the diffusion of individual molecules or atoms along the surface of a material, and the one used by Salmeron and his colleagues is one of the few in the world that can be operated at the extremely low temperatures needed to slow the diffusion process down enough for it to be imaged.

“Our findings allow for a deeper understanding of the physics and chemistry of water on surfaces,” Salmeron says. “Nature is always full of surprises and all it takes is to look carefully to discover new things.”

Washington Report

DOE Panel Wants U.S. to Rejoin ITER

DOE’s Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) wants the United States to rejoin the effort to build the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a multibillion-dollar international project that our government abandoned in 1998. FESAC panelists say that if this is not done, the U.S. government should fund the design work for a less expensive domestic fusion energy experiment — the $1.2 billion Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE). Full U.S. partnership in the ITER collaboration would cost $100 million a year, most likely for a decade or more.

“The consensus is that we’re ready to build a machine and do the science,” says Stewart Prager of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, one of FESAC’s 17 members. Ray Orbach, director of DOE’s Office of Science, says his office is committed to implementing the panel’s recommendations.

U.S. to Return to UNESCO

President George W. Bush has announced the United States will rejoin the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) after an 18-year absence. The announcement came during Bush’s address to the United Nations General Assembly urging action against Iraq. UNESCO was founded at the end of World War II by 20 nations, including the United States, to promote “collaboration among nations through education, science and culture.” Under this wide-ranging mandate, UNESCO initiated hundreds of conferences and projects ranging from geological research, environmental management, and renewable energy development, to literacy promotion and the preservation of ancient monuments. President Ronald Reagan ended U.S. membership in 1984, charging the UNESCO leadership with being anti-Western and under the sway of the Soviet Union.

More Money For NSF, But at a Cost

Two Senate committees have approved a bill supporting a five-year doubling of the budget of the National Science Foundation (NSF), one of the highest priorities of NSF Director Rita Colwell. However, the legislation comes with a catch that Colwell finds too steep.

Provisions in the legislation would merge a U.S. Department of Education program that provides money to states for the improvement of science and math education with a new NSF program that awards grants through a national competition to achieve the same goal. The hybrid was proposed by senators who felt that NSF was more likely to run a high-quality program involving university scientists.

Colwell also objects to a provision giving NSF’s science board authority to hire its own professional staff which is seen as a way to strengthen the board's independence and improve government oversight. Colwell sees it as the creation of a needless bureaucracy to deal with personnel issues now handled by NSF. — Lynn Yarris

Bob Camper Retirement Celebrated

By Dan Krotz

Bob Camper’s 10-year stint as head of the Facilities Department was feted at a retirement party last Thursday. His last day with Berkeley Lab is Oct. 31.

The party, held at H’s Lordships restaurant in Berkeley, featured songs and poems highlighting Camper’s career.

“A number of people spoke and reminisced about Bob’s time at the Lab,” says Guy Bear of the Operations Division. “You could sense the affection in their talks. It was very positive, and he will be missed.”

One such accolade, sung to the tune of El Paso by Marty Robbins, roasted Camper’s managerial style:

“Don’t cause me no crises,
don’t tell me no lies-es,
I don’t like surprises,
then we’ll get along,
His people revered him,
or was it, they feared him,
But today they all cheer him,
with a Bell and a Dong.

In addition to these less-than formal praises, Camper received several awards. Berkeley Lab’s Deputy Director for Operations Sally Benson presented him with a Laboratory Service Award. He also received awards from the Department of Energy headquarters and the UC Office of the President. The recognition is well deserved, according to those who worked with him.

“He has been a very strong advocate for ensuring the Lab’s facilities are in as good a condition as possible, in terms of utilities, infrastructure, and buildings,” says Laura Chen of the Facilities Department. “You need to be a very strong leader to be as successful as Bob. And he also provided very strong support to people in his department.”

The department’s achievements under Camper’s leadership include a maintenance turnaround that has made Berkeley Lab a model for the entire DOE system. The Lab’s infrastructure is greatly improved, thanks to major projects such as the electrical system upgrade, sanitary sewer upgrade, and the current sitewide water upgrade. In addition, Camper was able to find funds for projects such as painting, roofing, roadwork, parking, and signage.

Berkeley Lab grew during Cam-per’s watch, with major construction projects including Buildings 84 and 85, the Joint Genome Institute’s production sequencing facility, the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center, and Perseverance Hall.

Prior to his 10 years at Berkeley Lab, Camper served for 20 years in the U.S. Navy. He also worked as a facilities manager at Holy Cross Medical Center, in Mission Hills, California, and at Stanford Hospital.

Berkeley Lab Nuclear Chemists Receive
$1.5 Million in NNSA University Grants

By Dan Krotz

Three UC Berkeley chemistry professors and Berkeley Lab nuclear chemists have received two National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grants totaling almost $1.5 million. The grants are awarded to the chemists in their capacity as UC Berkeley professors to help train the next generation of scientists needed to conduct national security and stockpile stewardship research.

Joseph Cerny, leader of the Exotic Nuclei Group in Berkeley Lab’s Nuclear Science Division (NSD), received $833,000 to study nuclear reaction measurements with radioactive beams and targets. And Darleane Hoffman and Heino Nitsche, newly appointed leader of NSD’s Heavy Element Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group, are recipients of a $650,000 award to conduct neutron capture experiments on unstable nuclei.

The grants are awarded under the NNSA’s Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program, which links stockpile stewardship research programs with academic institutions. They will facilitate the direct measurement of several important neutron capture reactions in which a radioactive nucleus absorbs a neutron and emits gamma rays. Data from this research will be used to refine nuclear weapon computer simulations.

Much of the work will be conducted at Berkeley Lab as well as other national laboratories. Berkeley Lab’s 88-Inch Cyclotron, for example, which produces both light and heavy-ion beams of elements throughout the periodic table, will play a central role in Cerny’s grant.

The two grants, to be portioned out beginning in November, are part of $27.5 million recently awarded by the NNSA under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program. NNSA is a semi-autonomous agency of the U.S. Department of Energy. It enhances national security through the military application of nuclear energy, maintains the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, promotes international nuclear non-proliferation and safety, and reduces global danger from weapons of mass destruction.

Berkeley Lab Currents

Published twice a month by the Communications Department for the employees  and retirees of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Ron Kolb, Communications Department head.

EDITOR: Monica Friedlander, (510) 495-2248, msfriedlander@lbl.gov

STAFF WRITERS: Lisa Gonzales, 486-4698; Dan Krotz, 486-4109, Paul Preuss, 486-6249; Lynn Yarris, 486-5375

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Jon Bashor, 486-5849; Allan Chen, 486-4210

fleamarket@lbl.gov /currents_calendar@lbl.gov

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Communications Department, MS 65
One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720
Tel: (510) 486-5771 Fax: (510) 486-6641

Berkeley Lab is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Making Ever Smaller Chips

Researchers at Hewlett-Packard laboratories have announced that their scientists, including a former Berkeley Lab researcher, have used nano-imprint lithography to develop a manufacturing process capable of producing molecular-scale circuits vastly denser than today’s most advanced semiconductor chips. This advance could lead to the development of immensely powerful and inexpensive computers.

The researchers had been making working circuits for almost a year, but made the announcement after a crucial patent was granted for work done by Yong Chen, a senior Hewlett-Packard scientist and a former graduate student in Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division. Commercial use of the new approach, however, is at least five years off, according to Hewlett Packard scientists.

The researchers said they were pushing to meet a challenge set out by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Pentagon arm that is financing a number of research teams with the goal of building 16,000-bit memories by 2004.

Scientists at Hewlett-Packard have been working with electron beam experts at Berkeley Lab to refine the capabilities of the electron beams used in making the wire molds used to make the circuits. — Monica Friedlander

KRON-TV Gets a Panoramic View of Weather and Science

KRON-TV morning weather reporter Lisa Argen, shown here with cameraman Dean Kendrick, delivered the first portions of her show from Berkeley Lab on Tuesday, Oct. 1. In between weather reports, Argen did two segments on tomorrow’s Open House. First she got a lesson in Junior Gene Sleuthing from Life Sciences Division lab technician Elaine Gong (right), who showed Argen how to spool DNA. The second segment (below) was with Neville Smith, science director of the ALS, who gave her a brief history of the dome and the science that’s done beneath it.



Bulletin Board

Cool Toppins for Hill’s Angels

The sixth annual Computing Sciences Ice Cream Social on Tuesday, Sept. 24, got off to a roaring start as the "Hill’s Angels," CS’s motorcycle contingent, arrived in style and gear for their ice cream servings.

Meanwhile, members of the Computing Sciences management took time from their regular duties to serve icy delicacies to division staff and other passers-by who lined up patiently for a few scoops of ice cream during a midafternoon social hour.

Computer Security

Windows Expert

Jason Judkins of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a Windows security expert, will talk about how to secure your home computer on Tuesday,  Oct. 8.

The talk will be held at noon in the Building 50 auditorium.

Desktop Security Course

More security-related incidents involve desktop computers than any other type of system. A short course on desktop security will be offered on Thursday, Oct. 24 to address this issue and let employees know what they can do to protect their computers. Gene Schultz will be the presenter.

The focus will be on Windows 95/98/ NT/2000/XP systems. The course will point to specific steps users can take to protect desktop systems from worms, viruses, hackers, and other threats. Participants are encouraged to bring along their laptop computers for hands-on training.

The course will be held from 9 to 11 a.m. in the Building 50B-4205 conference room. To enroll visit http://hris.lbl.gov.

Benefits Tips

End-of-the-Year 403(b) Contribution

The Benefits Office would like to remind employees that you have only a few more pay periods left to make 403(b) contributions — one of the best ways to reduce your 2002 income taxes. By maximizing contributions to your 403(b) account you lower taxable earnings reported on your annual W-2 form. The deadline to make changes for the final paycheck in the 2002 tax year is Nov. 11 for monthly paid employees and Dec. 11 for biweekly paid employees.

The maximum contribution for 2002 is $11,000 for eligible employees under the age of 50 and $12,000 for those 50 and over. You can find out how much you have contributed to the plan this year by looking on the right-hand side of your paycheck stub for the 403B Deductions year-to-date (YTD) amount.

To make changes to your current contributions visit the “At Your Service” website at http://atyourservice.ucop.edu/ and click on “Your Benefits Online.” You can also make changes by phone via the Bencom line at 1(800) 888-8267. You will need your benefits PIN to use either of these services. For further assistance call the Benefits Service Center at X6403.

Workshop: Looking Ahead to Retirement

Berkeley Lab's Benefits Department, in conjunction with Fidelity Investments, will present an informational workshop to help employees approaching retirement age examine their retirement expenses and income sources and provide straegies to help them reach their goals. The workshop will be held on Wednesday, Oct. 9 from 12:30 to 1:30 p.m. in Perserverance Hall. Topics will also include distribution options and estate planning. To sign up call Fidelity at (800) 642-7131.

West Circle Shuttle

A new shuttle service started a trial run covering the route from West Circle on the UC Berkeley campus (near the Life Sciences Building and Oxford Street) to Strawberry Gate and on to the cafeteria. Shuttles run every half hour from 7:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m.. For more information contact Bus Services at X4165.

Fire Prevention Week: Spotlight on Safety

LBNL Fire Protection Engineering would like to remind employees that Oct. 6-12 is National Fire Prevention Week, observed in recognition of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).

The theme for the 2002 campaign of Fire Prevention Week is “Team up for Fire Safety.” The campaign touches on three simple but essential safety measures: installing and testing smoke alarms; practicing home escape plans; and hunting for home hazards.

Fire Prevention Week is a great time to remember to replace your smoke detector battery, plan and practice home fire exit drill, and identify and correct fire safety hazards.

To learn more about fire safety and prevention measures visit the NFPA’s website at http://www.nfpa.org/Education/fpwhome/fpwhome.asp. The site includes a wealth of fire safety information, including tools and games to implement these lessons. Kids will also enjoy the many offerings of Sparky the Fire Dog®.

Lab Hosts Two Pre-Election Events

Berkeley Mayor’s Race Debate:
Thursday, Oct. 17 • Noon
Perseverance Hall

All employees are invited to attend what is certain to be a lively debate of the Berkeley mayoral candidates, to be held right here at Berkeley Lab at noon on Thursday, Oct. 17. The candidates for mayor of the City of Berkeley include Shirley Dean (incumbent), former assemblyman Tom Bates and John “Pat” Boushell, a member of the Moderate American Green Inclusive Committee. Jane Coulter of the League of Women Voters of Berkeley-Albany-Emeryville will moderate the debate and collect and summarize audience questions.

The Berkeley Lab staff includes more than 1,000 employees who are residents of Berkeley. You have until Oct. 21 to register to vote in the Nov. 5 election.

Berkeley City Council Candidates’ Day

Thursday, Oct. 24, 11:30 – 1:30 p.m.
Cafeteria Lawn

The following Thursday, Oct. 24, you will also have a chance to meet candidates running in four of the eight districts of the Berkeley City Council.  (The district elections alternate every two years.) This year, candidates from Districts 1, 4, 7, and 8 are going to come to the Lab from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. to meet with Lab employees and discuss timely issues. Districts 4, 7, and 8 surround the UC Berkeley campus and Laboratory areas. The candidates are:

•           District 1 – Linda Maio (incumbent), Rhiannon
•           District 4 – David Freeman, Bob Migdal, Dona Spring (incumbent), L. A. Wood
•           District 7 – Micki Weinberg, Kriss Worthington (incumbent)
•           District 8 – Carlos Estrada, Andy Katz, Anne Wagley, Gordon Wozniak

Depending on weather conditions, candidates will assemble at tables on the lawn outside the cafeteria or in the cafeteria lobby.

For more information, see www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/elections/candidates/.


General Interest

OCTOBER 5, Saturday


OCTOBER 8, Tuesday

Starts at 8 a.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium

Noon, Bldg. 50 auditorium

OCTOBER 9, Wednesday

12:30 – 1:30, Perseverance Hall

OCTOBER 10, Thursday

7:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m., cafeteria parking lot

OCTOBER 17, Thursday

Noon, Perseverance Hall

OCTOBER 24, Thursday

11:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m., cafeteria lawn

Noon, cafeteria lawn

Send us your announcements

Announcements for the General Calendar and Bulletin Board page may be sent to MSFriedlander@lbl.gov. Seminars & Lectures items may be e-mailed to currents_ calendar@lbl.gov. You may also fax items to X6641 or mail them to Bldg. 65. The deadline for the Oct. 18 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, Oct. 14.

Seminars & Lectures

OCTOBER 7, Monday

The Allure and Challenge of Fiber Lasers
Speaker: Laura A. Smoliar, Lightwave Electronics
4:30 p.m., 1 Le Conte Hall

OCTOBER 8, Tuesday

Imaging Plasticity in the Adult Sensory Cortex
4:00 p.m., Building 66 auditorium

OCTOBER 10, Thursday

Probing Adsorption/Desorption Processes at the Liquid/Solid Interface: Thiols and Proteins
Speaker: Charles Campbell, University of Washington
1:30 p.m., Building 66 auditorium

Supergravity, Dark Energy and the Fate of the Universe
Speaker: Andrei Linde, Stanford University
4:00 p.m., Building 50A, Room 5132

OCTOBER 14, Monday

Frontiers In Thermoacoustics: Basic Science Driven By Applications
Speaker: Scott Backhaus, Los Alamos National Laboratory
4:30 p.m., 1 Le Conte Hall

OCTOBER 15, Tuesday

Measuring and Interpreting the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Muon
Speaker: Fred Gray, University of Illinois
4:00 p.m., Building 50A, Room 5132

OCTOBER 16, Wednesday

Imaging and Manipulation of Single Atoms and Molecules:
The New Science of the Nanoscale World
Speaker: Miquel Salmeron, Materials Science Division
11:00 a.m., Building 50 auditorium
Refreshments served at 10:30 a.m.

OCTOBER 17, 2002, Thursday

The Interaction of Gas Molecules at Atmospheric Pressures with Surfaces
Investigated With Surface X-Ray Diffraction
Speaker: Salvador Ferrer, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)
1:30 p.m., Building 66 auditorium

Refreshments served at 10:30 a.m.

Correlation and Quantum Degeneracy Effects in Semiconductors
Speaker: Daniel Chemla, Director of the Advanced Light Source
4:00 p.m., Building 50A, Room 5132

EH&S Classes – October 2002






EHS 260

Basic Electrical Hazard Awareness

9:00 – 10:30



EHS 10

Introduction to ES&H at LBNL*

8:00 – 10:15

50 aud


EHS 330

Lead Hazards Awareness

1:30 – 2:30



EHS 123

Adult CPR

8:30 – 12:00



EHS 280

Laser Safety

9:00 – 2:00



EHS 275

Confined Space Hazards

8:30 – 11:00



EHS 274

Confined Space-Retraining

11:00 – 12:00



EHS 256


10:00 – 1:30



EHS 530

Fire Extinguisher

10:00 – 11:30



EHS 400

Radiation Protection Fundamentals

9:00 – 12:00



EHS 432

Radiation Protection-Lab Safety

8:00 – 12:30



EHS 276

Fall Protection

9:00 – 10:00



EHS 735/ 738/739

Biosafety/Bloodborne Pathogen

1:30 – 2:45



EHS 154

Building Emergency Team Training

1:30 – 3:30



EHS 730

Medical/Biohazardous Waste

2:45 – 3:30



EHS 135

Earthquake/Wildland Fire Safety

10:30 – 12:00



EHS 60

Ergonomics for Computer Users

1:00 – 2:30



EHS 604

Hazardous Waste Generator

9:30 – 11:00



EHS 622

Radioactive & Mixed Waste

11:00 – 12:00



EHS 10

Introduction to ES&H at LBNL

1:00 – 3:00


* Session includes EHS 392/405, followed by the Lab orientation. Please arrive promptly for sign-in.

To enroll, contact Valarie Espinoza-Ross at VMEspinoza-Ross@lbl.gov or enroll via the web at https://hris.lbl.gov/self_service/training/. Preregistration is required for all courses except EHS 10. For a full, updated schedule, see http://www-ia1.lbl.gov/schedule/.

Flea Market


‘99 HONDA ACCORD DX, 26K mi, 5 spd, silver 4 dr, moonrf, ac, $10,900, Joey, X2944, 665-6090

‘95 HONDA DEL SOL 1.6, 5 spd, white, cruise, tilt wheel, all pwr, ac, spoiler, high perf tires & after market wheels, 102K mi, brand new timing belt & water pump, exc cond, $7,200, Lisa, X6121, 301-4734

‘95 FORD 350 XLT, dually, 40K mi, fully loaded, great cond, $12,500/bo, Manuel, X5906, (925) 679-0210

‘93 TOYOTA COROLLA, luxe sedan, 4 dr, ac, well maint, 91K mi, $4,900, Rita, 653-6964

‘92 FORD TEMPO GL, red, 88K mi, 2.3L engine, 100 hp, at, ac, pwr steer, cass, new brakes & radiator, runs well, $1,400, Andreas, X7756, 704-1656

‘90 TOYOTA CAMRY LE Wagon, gray, all pwr, well maint, all records, great cond, 180K mi, $3,300 blue book, John, (415) 388-6230

‘88 VOLVO 760 turbo GLE wagon, clean in & out, at, 196K mi, good tires, leather, recent tune-up & detail, dual sunrf, 3rd seat, pwr win, am/fm/cass, sheepskin seat covers, $2,500, Gail, (925) 299-0226

‘88 TOYOTA CAMRY, ac, manual, body exc cond, high milage but a dependable get-around-town car, well maint, $1,600/bo, Marilee or Tamara, 531-3500

‘88 TOYOTA CAMRY, 160K mi, 5 spd, ac, am/fm/cass, exc cond, very reliable, $2,700/bo, Frank or Kerstin, 524-7626

‘67 ALFA DUETTO (boat-tail) convertible, partly restored, all expensive work complete, looks great, runs well, $7,000, Alan, X7384


 ‘99 HONDA TRX 300EX, all-terrain vehicles, red/blk, 5 spd, 2 wd (2x4), exc cond, $3,900/bo, John, 531-1739


BERKELEY 1916 Haste St, 1 bdrm in Victorian House, hardwd floor, deck, high ceilings, close to campus, cafés, BART, very quiet, $1250/mo, Azita, 459-6980

BERKELEY HILLS, 1 rm avail Nov 1, fully furn, kitchen privil, nr campus, shuttle & Rose Garden, bay view, no smoking/pets, no overnight visitors, $700/mo + utils, Giorgio, X7519, gturri@lbl.gov,  Laura, 548-1287

BERKELEY HILLS, fully furn rm w/ sep entry, full kitchen privil, w&d, quiet neighborhood, lovely backyard, near bus, avail Aug, $890/mo incl util, Jacob, 524-3851, Labartists@ aol.com

BERKELEY HILLS, small detached studio w/ sep entry, priv bth, kitchenette, no smoking/pets, 1 person only, nr pub trans, offstreet parking, yr lease, $650/mo incl utils, Pinky, xcxc333@ yahoo.com

EL CERRITO, 1 bdrm in attractive 3 bdrm house, priv ent, furn, near pub trans & shops, share w/ classical pianist & young students, avail 10/1, no pets/smoking, $800/mo, Aurora, 799-2323

EL CERRITO house, charming 2 bdrm/1 bth, completely renov, partial view, liv/din, w&d hook up, lge yard, nr BART & shops, hardwd floors, fp, fruit trees, no smoking, $1,500/mo, 1st+last+1,000 dep, Craig, 541-0011

MONTCLAIR 254 Taurus Ave, modern studio inlaw w/ vaulted ceilings, fp, full kitchen, walk-in closet, w&d, 2 skylights, wall sconces, tiled floor, cable hook-ups, security alarm,  6-mo lease converts to mo-to-mo, 1st & last + $150 cleaning dep, utils incl, off-street parking, $900/mo, Kevin, (925) 423-5913

NORTH BERKELEY B&B for visiting scholars, $750/ 2 wks, $850/mo, avail for 2 weeks to 8 mos, 1 person per rm, 2 rms in house, 1 garden cottage, breakfast every day, bike avail, close to pub trans, avail now, Helen, 527-3252

ROCKRIDGE, avail 2/03, furn, 2 bdrm/1 bth flat in duplex, hardwd floors, basement w/ storage & laundry, cable TV, stereo, priv deck, garage, yard, close to pub trans, fab neighborhood, pets neg, $2,600/mo incl util, refs req, Barbara, X7367, 652-7044


BIKE, Marin larkspur hybrid bike, 20.5" aluminum frame, shimano 24-spd grip shift, 2 yrs old, $260; car rack Yakima mo joe trunk mount, holds up to 3 bikes, fits any car or van, easy to mount, $50; stereo RCA shelf system, 5 cd changer, double tape deck, tuner, 2 speakers, remote, $70; portable stereo, Phil-lips cd & tuner, built-in speakers, $20; Andreas, X7756, 704-1656

CD RACK, light wood 8-tier multimedia rack w/top shelf, 56"h x 24"w x 8 1/4"d, 400 cd cap, $50,  Susan, X4202, 486-1983

CERAMIC 20 pc dinnerware set, blk, srvc for 4 + 4 blk stem wine glasses, $30, Melissa, 665-5572 msg

DINING TABLE, teak, 36x 53" w/ two 20" built-in leaves, $150; 6 chairs, beech w/ rush seats, $90; futon, extends to full size, pine, $75; glass coffee table top, 2x4-ft, tempered, beveled, slight scratch, $20, Paul x6249

ENTERTAINMENT CTR,  1yr old, light oak, 66"w x 72"h x 24"d, retract doors, lge storage drawers, mirrored top shelf, touch on/ off lighting, $700, Larry, X5262

FLUTE, $300, Andrei, X6634, 525-5886 eves

KENMORE W&D, dryer is 220 v elec, $75/ea or $100/ pr, Bob, (925) 376-2211

KIDS BED, racing car, twin size w/o matt, blue, exc cond, will deliver, $100, Steve, X6271, (925) 256-9725

LA PAVONI ESPRESSO maker, all seals changed recently, works perfectly, $350 w/ stainless pitchers, Fred, X4352, 524-6519

ROTTWEILER puppies born 9/12, ready to go home 11/8, parents onsite, good temperament, in Pittsburg, $300, Rachel, X5674, Michelle, (925) 628-1672

SF OPERA TIX, Kat'a Kabanova 11/15, Hansel & Gretel 1/1, balc circle, front row, $176/pr, Diana, X6444

SF OPERA TIX, orch pr, row O ctr, 10/10 @ 6:30 p.m., Saint François d’Assise, $236/pr, Craig, 409-0600

SOLAFLEX GYM system, very good cond, bench pad, leg ext attachment, several 100s # of weight straps, dip bar, $450/bo, Fred, X4352, 524-6519


AQUARIUM STAND lge enough for 20 gal tank, wood pref, Marisol, X6011


SOUTH LAKE TAHOE, spacious chalet in Tyrol area, close to Heavenly, furn, peek of lake, sleeps 8+, sunny deck, pool/spa in club house, close to casinos/attractions, $150/ day+$75 cleaning fee, Angela, X7712, Pat/Maria, 724-9450

TAHOE KEYS at S. Lake Tahoe, 3 bdrm house, 2-1/2 bth, fenced yard, quiet, sunny, close to attr’s, priv dock, great view, $195/ night, 2 night min, Bob, (925) 376-2211

Flea Market Policy

Ads are accepted only from LBNL employees, retirees, and onsite DOE personnel. Only items of your own personal property may be offered for sale.

Submissions must include name, affiliation, extension, and home phone. Ads must be submitted in writing via e-mail (fleamarket@lbl.gov), fax (X6641) or mailed to Bldg. 65. Ads run one issue only unless resubmitted, and are repeated only as space permits. They may not be retracted.

The deadline for the Oct. 18, 2002 issue is Thursday, Oct. 10.