Two Berkeley Lab researchers were among the 60 new members elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) this year. Daniel Chemla, director of the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), and Ken Raymond, a principal investigator with the Chemical Sciences Division (CSD), were among those accorded one of the nation's highest honors for a scientist or engineer. NAS active membership now stands at 1,773.
Chemla, 56, is a physicist recognized as one of the world's foremost authorities on the optical and electronic properties of materials. He came to Berkeley Lab in 1991 to head the new MSD (prior to that MSD and CSD were a single division). He was also given a faculty appointment with the UC Berkeley physics department.
A French national who was born in Tunisia, Chemla obtained his degrees, including his Ph.D. in non-linear optics (1972) at the University of Paris. Although he began his studies as a particle physicist, Chemla switched to what he once called a more "human scale" of science--the interaction of laser radiation with matter. He went on to specialize in the study of quantum effects on "ultra-small material structures"--solids so small their physical properties become size- and shape-dependent. Prior to his arrival in Berkeley, Chemla was with AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he became the head of the Quantum Physics and Electronic Research Department.
In addition to his NAS membership, Chemla is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America (OSA) and of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). In 1988, he received OSA's R.W. Wood Prize. In 1995 he received both the Quantum Electronics Award of IEEE's Laser and Electro-Optics Society, and a Humboldt Research Award.
Raymond, 55, chairs the UC Berkeley Department of Chemistry, where he has been a professor of inorganic chemistry since 1968. He has been associated with Berkeley Lab since 1973. In 1984 he won an E.O. Lawrence Award, given by the U.S. Department of Energy for his research on sequestering agents for the potential removal of plutonium from the human body.
Born in Astoria, Ore., Raymond received his undergraduate degree from Reed College in 1964, and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Northwestern University in 1968. The thrust of his research effort since coming to Berkeley has been directed toward finding chemical agents that can safely remove concentrations of poisonous metal ions from the human body. To this effect, he has been designing chemical compounds modeled after the compounds manufactured by bacteria and other microorganisms to transport iron. Raymond's synthetic agents bind tightly enough with plutonium so that it can be passed through the kidneys and excreted out of the body. These agents could also prove valuable for removing radioactive waste from the environment.
In addition to 60 new active members, NAS also elected 15 foreign associates from 11 different countries. Foreign associates are non-voting NAS members with citizenship outside the United States. One of the new associates is Grigory Barenblatt, a Russian professor of fluid mechanics at Cambridge University, who is visiting at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley's Miller Institute for Basic Research. Barenblatt was the collaborator with Berkeley Lab mathematician Alexandre Chorin in last year's highly publicized repudiation of the "Law of the Wall," a 60-year-old equation for predicting the stresses of turbulence that is widely used in the design of aircraft and engines.
Photo: Daniel Chemla (XBD9511-05468)
Photo: Ken Raymond (XBP9308-05359)
By Lynn Yarris
The world record for field strength in a dipole magnet has been shattered by a team of researchers in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD). A one-meter-long superconducting electromagnet, featuring coils wound out of 14 miles of niobium-tin wire, reached a field strength as high as 13.5 Tesla, far-surpassing the previous high of 11.03 Tesla set by a Dutch group in 1995.
The team that designed, built and tested the record-holding magnet was led by AFRD materials scientist Ron Scanlan. The field strength achieved by Scanlan and his group is about a quarter of a million times stronger than the magnetic field of Earth and about triple the strength of the superconducting dipole magnets at the Tevatron, the highest energy particle accelerator in the world.
The new magnet is among the first to use a niobium-tin alloy for the superconductivity (the absence of electrical resistance) of its coils. Construction costs for this prototype were so high--about one million dollars--that only one magnet could be built and tested. This was a nerve-wrenching departure from the conventional practice of building several test magnets at once.
"We were in unknown territory," Scanlan says. "Even though we carefully tested all of the components during construction, we could not know for certain what we had until we tested the completed magnet."
What he and his group have will likely serve as the model for the dipole magnets that will be used in the next generation of high-energy particle accelerators. This particular new dipole magnet will be used at Berkeley Lab as a test facility for evaluating superconductors that could yield even more powerful magnets in the future.
Dipole magnets are used to bend and maintain the path of accelerating particle beams. The higher the field strengths of the magnets, the tighter the arc of the beam. With stronger dipole magnets, an accelerator can push particles to much higher relativistic energies around the same-sized circular beam path. The use of high-field strength superconducting electromagnets has always been a considerable technical challenge, however, because superconductivity has a tendency to weaken and disappear in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Nonetheless, the inherent limitations of conventional electromagnets--they cannot attain a dipole field strength much above 2 Tesla--has prompted a continuing development of new and better superconducting alloys.
In recent years, the alloy of choice for accelerator magnets has been niobium-titanium. Superconducting magnets made from this alloy operate in all of today's most powerful machines and will be used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) now being built at CERN. The LHC magnets are expected to operate at a field strength of 8.6 Tesla, which is approaching the 10 Tesla mark that is considered to be the upper limit of niobium-titanium accelerator magnets.
In the search for superconductors capable of reaching higher field strengths, it was determined that niobium-tin could, in principle, fit the bill. However, unlike niobium-titanium, niobium-tin is a non-ductile material, and was thought to be too fragile and brittle to withstand the stress of fabrication.
Scanlan and his group overcame the brittleness obstacle by making their cable from separate strands of niobium and tin in a copper composite strand (fabricated by the companies of Teledyne Wah Chang and Intermagnetics General) while the materials were still ductile. Only after they wound their cable into four magnet coils did they meld the separate niobium and tin strands into the superconducting compound that is so brittle. The alloy was made by heating the coils to 950 Kelvins (about 680 degrees Celsius), baking them for about 10 days, then cooling the material to ambient temperature. Once the four coils were assembled into a dipole magnet they had to be cooled far below room temperature to make them superconducting, this time to a temperature of about 4.3 Kelvin (-270 degrees Celsius).
"The thermal expansion-contraction effects in going from a reaction temperature of 950 K to a test temperature of 4.3 K are enormous," says Scanlan. To withstand this and other stresses, the wound coils are impregnated with an epoxy filler.
After being filled with epoxy, each coil is encased in an iron yoke that contributes to the strength and stability of the magnetic field. The coils are then wrapped in 18 layers of sheet stainless steel, forming a collar that prevents the coils from separating under the force generated when their tremendous magnetic field is energized.
The finished meter-long magnet is also about one meter in diameter and has a 50 millimeter bore. It weighs about seven tons.
"Inside the iron yoke and stainless steel wrap of each coil is something that is as brittle as glass," says Scanlan, explaining why, despite its bulk and solid appearance, the magnet has to be handled with great care when it is moved from one location to another.
As with any new superconducting electromagnet, the niobium-tin dipole at Berkeley Lab had to be "trained" to attain its peak field strength. Training is a staggered process in which the magnet is chilled until its coils become superconducting (using liquid helium) then energized up in field strength until superconductivity is lost in some parts of its coils through inadvertent warming. This temporary loss of superconductivity is called "quenching" and when it occurs, the magnet must be given time to recover, then re-cooled.
"The magnet was ramped to slightly above 10 Tesla before the first quenching occurred," says Scanlan, calling this initial effort "encouraging." The magnet was then slowly but steadily trained upward in field strength until, after 13 quenches, it reached 11.14 Tesla. When further training at 4.3 Kelvin failed to raise the field strength, Scanlan and his group began lowering the temperature. Field strength maxed out at the 13.5 Tesla mark after the temperature had been dropped to about 1.8 Kelvin (-271 degrees Celsius). The entire process lasted about three weeks.
"This became a test of the magnet's structural integrity as well as its field strength because of the stress involved," Scanlan says. "Any weakness in the structure would have caused the entire magnet to fail."
The definition of a good magnet is one that stays trained, according to Scanlan. Consequently, his team is now in the process of allowing the magnet to warm to room temperature before cooling it back down and ramping it up again. Based on performances during the earlier training session, the magnet is expected to do fine. Eventually, Scanlan says, his group will disassemble their magnet and rebuild it with an eye toward bringing expenses down so future production costs will be comparable to those of today's niobium-titanium magnets.
In addition to Scanlan, other members of Berkeley Lab's superconducting magnet team included Bob Benjergerdes, Paul Bish, Shlomo Caspi, Ken Chow, Dan Dietderich, Domenico Dell'Orco, Roy Hannford, Warren Harnden, Hugh Higley, Alan Lietzke, Alfred McInturff, Larry Morrison, Mike Morrison, Clyde Taylor, and Johannes Van Oort.
Photo: The team that designed, built and tested the record-breaking magnet. (XBC9703-01189) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt
Photo: Team leader Ron Scanlan stands beside the one-meter-long superconducting electromagnet (lower right). (XBC9704-02157) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt
Berkeley Lab has approved minor modifications to the operation of its facilities for handling wastes. Upon completing its review of potential impacts from the modifications, the Laboratory has submitted the proposed changes to state regulators for their required approval.
This action concludes the latest in a series of thorough environmental impact reviews of the Lab's waste handling facilities designed to ensure the safety and protection of the environment and the people in and around the Laboratory. In 1990, the Lab completed an environmental impact report (EIR) for its new state-of-the-art facility, which opened last month.
The most recent review was completed with the adoption of a "Subsequent Mitigated Negative Declaration" approved May 6 by Lab Director Charles Shank. Under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), a subsequent mitigated declaration is prepared when an EIR has already been done and a follow-up study shows no new significant impacts.
The Laboratory decided that such a determination was appropriate because, with implementation of mitigation measures designed to help ensure safe and environmentally sound practices, the changes in operation will not result in new significant impacts and will not increase the severity of significant impacts previously identified in the 1990 EIR and other prior environmental reviews.
The permit modification being requested from the state's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) will allow the Lab to continue its handling and storage of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in an environmentally safe manner and in conformance with regulatory requirements. Most of the requested modifications accommodate on-site storage for the Lab's mixed waste until off-site storage, treatment, and disposal facilities specified in the Lab's Site Treatment Plan can receive the Lab's waste.
The Lab's impact review included consideration and response to 248 comments on its CEQA analysis from 153 individuals and organizations. The Lab also answered 91 comments received about the permit application and 172 on general Lab operations.
The modification to the "Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit," if granted by DTSC, would authorize the Lab to:
As required by CEQA, potential environmental impacts from the modifications were taken into consideration in making the decision. Areas addressed include planning and land use; population, employment and housing; geology, soils and seismicity; hydrology and water quality; biological resources; cultural and historical resources; traffic and transportation; visual quality and aesthetics; air quality; noise and vibration; utilities and infrastructure; public services; energy; and hazardous materials, including risks to human health under both normal operations and under several accident scenarios, such as a firestorm or major earthquake.
The decision was based upon information contained in a detailed "Initial Study" prepared for the modifications, plus written and verbal information received from the public and agencies during and after a 65-day public comment period. In addition, as part of the permit application process, a public meeting about the proposed modifications was held by the Lab on Feb. 5, 1996.
The "Response to Public Comment" document, dated April 1997, was distributed to all individuals and organizations who provided comments and to other individuals who requested a copy.
Last month, Berkeley Lab began operations at its new state-of-the-art Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (see May 2 Currents). The Lab is in the process of transferring waste to the new facility from the former location. The new building's activities will change only slightly under the proposed Part B permit modification.
The Laboratory has sought the modifications in part because the Department of Energy's Site Treatment Plan for the Laboratory requires treatment of most mixed waste off-site. Mixed waste treatment locations are currently limited but will likely open up in the near future. In the meantime, the Lab has asked for permission to slightly expand its storage capacity. While unlikely to be reached, mixed waste storage limits requested in the modifications could be accommodated within the new facility and one additional storage locker.
The new treatment methods requested would not require modifications to the new facility.
BNL Contract Terminated:
Secretary of Energy Federico Peña has terminated DOE's contract with Associated Universities Inc. (AUI) to manage Brookhaven National Laboratory. A "limited competition" is now under way to find a new contractor within the next six months.
AUI, a Washington-based consortium of nine northeastern universities, has for 50 years run BNL, which has been targeted by Long Island residents for issues of environmental safety. Of biggest concern was the discovery in January of a tritium leak in BNL's High-Beam Flux Reactor (HFBR), one of the country's top neutron-scattering facilities.
"I'm sending a message to Long Island--and to our facilities nationwide--that I will take appropriate actions to rebuild trust and to make environment, safety and health a priority," said Peña in his May 1 announcement. "There need not--and will not be--a tradeoff between award-winning scientific research and environment, safety and health."
AUI President Lyle Schwartz has been interim director at BNL since Nicholas Samios stepped down April 30.
A DOE oversight review cited AUI for failing to deal with a host of ES&H issues and for fostering the perception at BNL that "freedom and creativity needed for scientific inquiry are stifled by the discipline needed to prevent accidents or environmental problems." The review also indicated that there was confusion at DOE Headquarters, field offices, and among DOE officials at BNL over who was responsible for enforcing ES&H regulations.
Secretary Peña appointed John Wagoner, manager of the Richland, Wash., Operations Office, to oversee BNL operations for DOE during the transition to a new contractor. The Secretary requested that Martha Krebs, head of the Office of Energy Research, complete in 30 days an action plan to correct the problems identified in the review.
"This is our problem, not just Brookhaven's," Krebs said. "We want the DOE programs to interact with the scientific performers, and when it comes to safety and environmental performance, there is no clear ownership. This is a problem for all of our multiprogram labs."
Peña Says Expand Tech Transfer:
Following a speech to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Secretary of Energy Federico Peña told reporters that he wants to expand efforts at the national laboratories to commercialize the technologies they have developed. Peña endorsed the tech transfer approach of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which he says is "literally growing new businesses using technologies emanating from the labs."
SNL is managed by the Lockheed Martin Corp. which, in 1993, established a non-profit subsidiary called Technology Ventures Corp. to commercialize technologies developed at SNL and other federal labs in New Mexico. Peña also praised Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is now setting up a small industrial park as an "incubator" for new businesses based on LANL technologies.
Peña To Review LHC Agreement:
In response to the concerns of Representative James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.), who chairs the House Science Committee, Energy Secretary Peña has agreed to review the U.S. government's tentative agreement with Europe to help build the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to make sure it is a good deal for this country. DOE officials are seeking to provide $450 million worth of hardware for the accelerator and its two main detectors, with the National Science Foundation kicking in an additional $80 million for the detectors.
The LHC is expected to cost a total of $5 billion and is scheduled to begin operations at CERN in Geneva in 2005. DOE and CERN officials believe the agreement is mutually beneficial to all parties and already addresses most of Sensenbrenner's concerns. The congressman, however, thinks that the U.S. is getting a raw deal. His committee has denied specific funding for the project in the 1998 DOE authorization bill. After meeting with Sensenbrenner, Peña says he is willing to "go back and make some changes" in the agreement.
By Bruce Davies
DOE's Office of Planning and Analysis (OPA) recently completed a six-month peer review of currently funded ER-Laboratory Technology Research Program (ER-LTR) projects. Out of 87 multi-year Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) reviewed from the five ER labs, nine were deemed "outstanding" by OPA panelists. Of the nine outstanding appraisals, Berkeley Lab received four. The four other ER labs--Argonne, Brookhaven, Oakridge, and Pacific Northwest--split five outstanding appraisals.
With a maximum score of 10, the average score for all ER labs was 7.1--Berkeley Lab averaged 7.8; the other four averaged 6.9. Sixteen out of 21 Berkeley Lab projects reviewed received "strong" to "outstanding" scores. Evaluation criteria included: scientific/ technical merit; importance of the project; quality of project team; scientific/technical approach; productivity; and probability of success.
The principal investigators of the four projects rated "outstanding" are: William Jagust for his work with Somatix, Inc. on neurochemical imaging; Gabor Somorjai for a collaboration with DuPont on chloro-fluorocarbon catalysis; Ka-Ngo Leung for his partnership with the Advanced Lithography Group developing a better ion implantation source; and Robert Cheng and Teledyne Laars for their development of low NOx water heaters.
The Department of Energy's ER-LTR program was initiated in 1992 to make industrially relevant scientific expertise available to industry through cost-shared collaborations and is meant to bridge the gap between basic science and cost effective commercial development. The program is managed by Chris Kniel in Berkeley Lab's Technology Transfer Department.
"The LTR Partnership Program is solid, and it makes so much sense for the labs and industry to work together," said Kniel. "Seed money from LTR helps develop and foster teamwork." He says he thinks the positive OPA results present another strong argument for significant expansion of the Partnership Program.
David Koegel, LTR Peer Review coordinator for the Office of Energy Research, said, "I have reviewed the results of the OPA Peer Review of the Laboratory Technology Research program with respect to other OPA-reviewed programs. The percentage of projects rated `good' to `outstanding' for the LTR program is comparable for all other ER projects reviewed by OPA."
Bad news for men fighting middle-age spread: Weight gain may be inevitable, even among serious athletes.
In a study involving 4,769 male runners under the age of 50, Paul Williams of the Lab's Life Sciences Division investigated the question of whether vigorous exercise can prevent weight gain with age. Williams found that in middle-aged men, waist-line expansion is almost a force of nature. Those who exercise will be leaner than sedentary individuals, but even devoted runners will find it increasingly difficult to remain sleek.
The outlook for men over the age of 50 is similar, at least around the waist. Examining a second set of 2,150 male runners (all over the age of 50), Williams found that men over the age of 50 appear to gradually lose muscle mass and weight as the years pass. Unfortunately, the runners' waist sizes generally did not deflate with age.
Williams reports these findings in the May issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. They are the latest results from the National Runners' Health Study, ongoing research that is headed by Williams.
Aside from the sagging egos that are associated with bulging beltlines, there are also serious health consequences.
Expanded waists usually are the result of increased abdominal fat. According to a large body of scientific evidence, this fat is linked to high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease.
Williams says the current study was designed to explore the fundamental question of whether middle-age weight gain is a basic physiological consequence of aging or the result of declining activity levels.
The study showed that in 4,769 runners between the ages of 18 and 50, weight gain occurred at the same rate almost regardless of the number of miles run per week. Per decade, the average six-foot-tall man gained about 3.3 pounds and about 3/4 of an inch around the waist.
Over the years, this weight gain adds up. Among the under-30 age group of runners in the study, 21 percent were moderately overweight; in the 45-49 age group, 30 percent were overweight.
"Our data suggests that you can probably compensate for middle-aged weight gain by becoming more active," Williams says. "By annually increasing weekly running distance by about 1.4 miles, we estimate that the effects of exercise should compensate for the expected weight gain during middle age. What this means is that runners who average 10 miles per week at age 30 should increase their weekly running distance to 24 miles by age 40 if they plan to still fit into the tuxedo they bought a decade earlier."
The findings in this study reveal a contradiction inherent in the current national health policy.
The widely followed guidelines for recommended weight--the Department of Agriculture's 1995 Dietary Guidelines for Americans--set the same overweight standards for young and old. Likewise, the federal guidelines for physical activity call for equal amounts of exercise for both younger and older adults. Both the Surgeon General and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend 30 minutes of moderate physical activity for everybody most days of the week.
Williams says the government's recommendations for physical activity and for weight are in conflict.
"If the federal weight standard is going to make no distinction for age, then we believe that physical activity guidelines should recommend substantial increases in activity over time. The alternative," Williams says, "is to adopt a weight standard that accommodates the normal consequences of aging. Earlier versions of the federal weight guidelines allowed people to gain weight as they age."
Without doubt, physical inactivity and dietary choices play a major role in the prevalence of obesity in this country. However, says Williams, the results of this study indicate that physiological changes that occur as we age also lead to weight gain. The underlying cause of these physiological changes remains an enigma. Some suggest declining testosterone or "male menopause" as a cause. Several genes recently have been identified that may regulate weight. Williams suggests that runners may be ideal subjects for a study to reveal the biological basis of middle-age weight gain since running appears to reduce the influences of inheritance and diet, but not middle age.
Women may wonder what this study portends for them. Currently, WIlliams is examining the pattern of weight gain in women runners, a pattern which could be fundamentally different from that observed in men. Prior to menopause, women tend to gain fat in their hips and thighs rather than in their waists, and they may be particularly vulnerable to weight retention after pregnancy.
Photo: Members of the Lab's Green Team led a team of employees and family members on an April 3 clean-up mission at the Berkeley Marina as part of the Lab's Earth Month celebration. (XBC9704-02090)
Photo: Vince Resh of UC Berkeley (pointing at water) led an April 24 ecological tour of UC's Strawberry Creek, which wends its way down through Strawberry Canyon and across campus. (XBC9704-02092)
Photo: Diane Dohvoluk of the Alameda County Home Composting Education Program showed employees attending the Lab's April 17 Eco Fair how to turn compost into a valuable garden supplement. (XBC9704-02091)
The following employees were winners of the April 17 EcoFair drawing:
Marine World Africa USA tickets
EBMUD water saving devices
Stationary (Made with marigold petals on recycled paperstock)
By Monica Friedlander
Berkeley Lab's Glenn Seaborg is not only an award-winning chemist; the Nobel Prize recipient, who just celebrated his 85th birthday, is also an accomplished hiker. So much so that in 1980 he was responsible for laying out the California leg of Hike-A-Nation, an effort that blazed a hiking trail across the United States. Seaborg described this historic undertaking during a noontime Earth Month presentation on April 1.
It started 20 years ago at a meeting of the American Hiking Society, of which Seaborg was a charter member. While others debated the general idea of sponsoring a hike across the United States, Seaborg, then 67, got up and said, "Let's stop discussing and let's do it." Right then and there he took responsibility for laying out the trail across California, provided "they started in San Francisco and not Los Angeles."
For the next year, Seaborg and his wife Helen spent much of their free time scouting segments of what would become the Golden State Trail. Then, on April 13, 1980, they joined 7,000 other hikers and crossed the Bay Bridge to begin the hike from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The California stretch, which Seaborg completed, took them from Tilden Park to Mount Diablo, on to Sacramento, through the Sierras, and finally across the Washoe River into Nevada.
Among the hikers were 13 of Seaborg's graduate students. "I told them it wasn't necessary to this," Seaborg quipped, "but they figured it wouldn't hurt if they went along."
Every night the hikers--followed by a support van--searched for a place to set up camp, and every seven days they stopped for a day of rest. When Seaborg's group ran into knee-high snow in the Sierras, some chose to walk along Highway 50. Seaborg chose the adventurous route, snow and all. When the group reached the Nevada border, Seaborg had to leave the group to return to work, but rejoined the hikers later.
Over the course of the nationwide hike, the group eventually dwindled to some three dozen people, although local hikers jumped on the bandwagon along the way.
On May 13, 1981, the group arrived in Washington DC, where Seaborg addressed a large crowd on the steps of the Capitol. Each hiker received plaque and letter of recognition from President Reagan.
Interestingly, Seaborg said, the hikers started their journey on April 13, 1980, and arrived in Washington on May 13, 1981--that's 13 months on the road, averaging 13 miles a day through 13 states. Seaborg's son Eric--a hiker since he began to walk--followed in his father's footsteps, blazing another transcontinental trail (the American Discovery Trail) 10 years later. Which goes to prove that some things do run in the family.
While mosquitoes have been around a long time--at least 15 million years and probably a lot longer--decades of spraying, draining and getting rid of breeding habitats have dramatically reduced their number and the outbreak of diseases associated with them. However, they are still present in sufficient numbers to give themselves a bad name.
In South America, Africa and Southeast Asia, mosquitoes transmit such diseases as yellow and dengue fever, encephalitis, malaria and parasites. In the United States, they are also carriers of dog heartworm, a parasite which can kill dogs and cause health problems in people.
Bill Hamersky, a mosquito control technician with the Alameda County Mosquito Abatement District, talked about mosquitoes from a past and present perspective during an Earth Month presentation on April 15. Much of his talk was on how to remove sources of standing water--the ideal habitat for mosquitoes.
Worldwide, he said, there are more than 3,000 species of mosquitoes, with 167 varieties buzzing around the United States. While 19 species call Alameda County home, only nine kinds of mosquitoes inhabit Berkeley.
The Alameda district was started in the early 1930s, primarily to combat two mosquito species living in Bay marshes. While mosquitoes breed in naturally occurring bodies of water (many are seasonal caused by winter rains), many of the ideal habitats are created by human activity, Hamersky said.
Old tires, buckets, storm drains, underground utility structures, decorative fish ponds, clogged gutters and drainage ditches form "prime mosquito habitats" when filled with water--and mosquitoes can reproduce in water as shallow as 1/4 inch. On the other hand, a half-filled 55-gallon drum can yield 10,000 of the biting bugs in one summer.
"I think just about everybody has at least one item in their yard that can collect water and serve as a breeding area," Hamersky said. "We could make a big dent in the problem if people would take a look around and clean up these `cauldrons of pestilence.'"
Mosquitoes do provide a few benefits, Hamersky said. Their larvae and pupae provide food for other insects, birds and fish, and the adults help pollinate many kinds of plants. And, showing a slide of a piece of pottery with a mosquito motif from 500 B.C., he showed that the biting bugs even provided artistic inspiration--to at least one person.
In case you were wondering . . .
Berkeley Lab has a new optometrist. Dr. Frank Quon has taken over the position formerly held by Theresa Liu. Like Liu, Quon is a graduate of UC Berkeley's School of Optometry.
Quon, who runs a private practice in San Mateo, is at the Lab every Thursday, turning his attention to protecting the vision of Lab employees who work in environments potentially hazardous to their eyes. It is a duty Quon does not take lightly.
"All it takes is one instance of carelessness to lose your eye or your vision," he constantly reminds people.
The Laboratory requires that safety glasses be worn by employees whose work may place them at risk of eye injury. These may include workers in machine shops, glassblowers exposed to infrared radiation, people who work with lasers or with hazardous liquids, or employees who need VDT glasses because of their work at computer terminals.
All required safety glasses--prescription and nonprescription--are provided by the Lab free of charge. The Eye Protection Program covers the glasses and the fitting of appropriate eye wear. Refractions for prescription safety lenses may be obtained onsite for a fee of $40. Part of this cost may be covered by your health insurance. Nonprescription safety glasses may be obtained from Central Stores (X5087).
For Quon, working in a laboratory environment is a welcome change of pace from his regular practice.
"It's a different kind of optometry," he says. "I like to address people's concerns about health intervention issues and advise them on eye safety issues related to their work environment. These are more practical, nuts and bolts-type issues than the ones I normally deal with. No one comes here for fashion glasses."
For an appointment with Quon or more information about the services offered by the Lab's Eye Protection Program, call Health Services at X7378. Additional information on protective equipment and employee eligibility may be found in the Lab's Safety Manual Publication 3000, Chapter 19, available on the EH&S web site at http://ehs.lbl.gov/ehsdiv/pub3000/CH19/Ch.19.html#RTFToC11
Photo: Dr. Frank Quon is the Laboratory's new optometrist. (XBD9705-02154) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt
On Tuesday, May 13, a commercial tanker transporting liquid nitrogen to the UC Berkeley campus got caught in a precarious position when the driver made a wrong turn and came up Cyclotron Road to the Lab's Blackberry Gate. When the driver tried to turn the rig around, the tanker tipped sideways, balancing on its downhill wheels and almost overturning. The Lab's Fire Department responded along with UCPD. Two large tow trucks were called out to upright the tanker, which was then maneuvered by the driver--who was unhurt--out of the tight spot and back down the hill. The Blackberry gate was blocked for two hours, but there were no injuries and no spills. (XBC9705-02220) Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt
This sea of wool and horns is a herd of mostly Angora billy (male) goats being urged along by a four-footed goatherd (just out of the photos). The billys, which belong to Goats Are Us in Orinda, are making their annual trek from Orinda to Berkeley, cleaning out the dry brush and undergrowth as they go. The Lab, UC Berkeley campus, and Tilden Park use the goats as a natural way of reducing fire hazards. You can spot the robust eaters along the Lab's steep slopes. (XBC9705-02218 & XBC9705-02219)
The Blood Bank of the Alameda Contra Costa Medical Association will make its next visit to the Lab between 7 a.m. and 1 p.m. on Tuesday, May 20, in the Bldg. 70A conference room. If you are interested in donating blood, please call the Benefits Office at X6403 to make an appointment, or drop in at your convenience. Refreshments will be served.
Anyone age 17 or older may give blood as long as they weigh at least 110 pounds and are healthy. There is no upper age limit. All blood types are needed, and there is a special need for type 0 positive.
There are certain conditions under which you may not give blood (e.g., if you have had a tatoo within the last year). If you have questions about your eligibility, you may call the Blood Bank at 654-2924. You will also be asked to fill out an eligibility form at the time of donation, during which time a Blood Bank representative will confidentially assist you in determining your eligibility.
The exhibit opened April 30 on the third floor of Bldg. 90 (in the area between rooms 3075 and 3148), and will remain until May 29.
"The purpose of the exhibit is to recognize and acknowledge the many talents of those employed by our division," says EET Division Director Mark Levine. "We are fortunate to have a number of gifted artists in our midst."
A total of 18 entries are exhibited in a variety of media, including oils, watercolors, computer-generated art, black & white and color photos, and black ink drawings.
A contest is being held to determine the most popular exhibit, says exhibit coordinator Denise Thiry. Employees are welcome to view the art and cast a vote. Levine will present a "Most Popular Exhibit" Award to the artist receiving the most votes. Ballots and a ballot box are located in the lobby area near the exhibit.
Photo: Danny Fuller's entry "Candelight Dinner" is one of 18 pieces on display in Bldg. 90. (Cur.artphoto) Photo by Denise Thiry
By Jim Miller
The Facilities Department is offering a newly revised program for crane, hoist, and forklift operator training and certification. Under new regulations, crane operators certified under the new program will be able to operate up to a 30-ton crane with no size restrictions. The new program allows divisions to hold training sessions whenever needed, and to keep and process their own training documentation.
Courses offered include:
EHS022 Forklift (two hour lecture, with practical training)
EHS0226 Forklift (one-hour refresher, with practical training)
EHS020 Hoists and Cranes (four-hour lecture, with practical training)
EHS020 Hoists and Cranes (two-hour refresher, with practical training)
Guidelines for supervisors and applications are available both from the Work Request Center at X6274 and using Appleshare. (Choose the Facilities-90 zone, Facilities Server-90, and the A&E item. Open A&E, select the "FORMS" folder, and copy the folder "Application - H/C & Fork" to your computer.)
The program has seven certified trainers, who will conduct both lectures and practical training, and two division training coordinators, who will coordinate all documentation and course scheduling. The program is administered by the Facilities Department with EH&S oversight.
Applications must be completed according to the guidelines and sent to the appropriate division training coordinator:
Engineering/Admin: Corine Ortiz, X7506, Bldg. 77-125
All other divisions: Marie Elvira, X5495, Bldg. 90G
To place an order, call 658-5010 or fax 652-6153. The supplier will need your name and employee number; account number; phone number; destination building number; and gases and quantities required (no orders will be accepted without this information).
Gases will be delivered to your building's cylinder receiving area. Deliveries will not be made to rooms, labs, or the Bldg. 69 gas rack. Orders required by the next day must be ordered before 2 p.m. the preceding day. The supplier will bill your account directly on a monthly basis.
Most industrial and high-purity gases and mixes are available on this subcontract. Toxic gases, restricted chemicals and other specialty gases are not available on this subcontract.
An informational meeting about the gas ordering changes will be held from 10 to 11:30 a.m. on Wednesday, May 21, in Bldg. 70A-3377. For more information, contact Paul Hootman at X4524.
The Berkeley Lab Calendar is published biweekly here on the World Wide Web and in Currents by the Public Information Department. Employees can list a meeting, class, or event in the Calendar by using this submission form. The deadline for submissions is 5 p.m. on Monday in the week that Currents is published.
In addition to the events listed below, Berkeley Lab's Washington, D.C. Projects office is hosting a Science and Technology Seminars series.Scientific Conferences
The Blood Bank will be in Bldg. 70A-3377 from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m.
BODYWORKS AEROBICS CLASS
Noon-1 p.m. in Bldg. 90-4133.
An informational meeting about changes in how to order cylinder gases will be held from 10 to 11:30 a.m. in Bldg. 70A-3377.
Officer's meeting at 12:10 p.m. in Bldg. 2-100.
Noon-1 p.m. in Bldg. 90-4133.
Noon-1 p.m. in Bldg. 90-4133.
7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., Bldg. 54 parking lot.
Noon-1 p.m. in Bldg. 90-4133.
EET DIVISION ART EXHIBIT CONCLUDES
Today is the last day to visit the EET Division Staff Art Exhibit on the 3rd floor of Bldg. 90. Stop by and cast a vote for the best of show.
"In-Situ UHV-TEM Studies of the Initial Cu(001) Oxidation Stage" will be presented by Judith C. Yang of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at 2 p.m. in Bldg. 72-201.
"Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage in Atherosclerosis" will be presented by Jay W. Heinecke of Washington University at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 66-316.
Physics Division Research Progress Meeting
"Measurement of the Tau Neutrino Helicity at LEP" will be presented by Ron Moore of the University of Michigan at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5132; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.
"FEMP's Procurement Challenge Program" will be presented by Philip E. Coleman of LBNL's Washington, DC office, at noon in Bldg. 90-3148. Hosted by the Environmental Energy Technologies Division.
"PG&E's Cool Tools Project" will be presented by Mark Hydeman of PG&E's Pacific Energy Center at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.
Center for Environmental Biotechnology Seminar
"Bacteria, Sulfonic Acids and the Sulfur Cycle" will be presented by Edward Leadbetter of the University of Connecticut at noon in Bldg. 50A-5132.
Physics Division Research Progress Meeting
"A Large-Scale Search for Dark-Matter Axions" will be presented by Karl Van Bibber of LLNL at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5132; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.
"Saw-Tooth Instability Studies at the SLC Damping Rings" will be presented by Boris Podobedov of SLAC at 10:30 a.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room.
"Energy for the Arctic" will be presented by Bill Isherwood of LLNL at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.
Center for Beam Physics Special Seminar
Prof. E. Jaeschke of BESSY will speak at 10:30 a.m. in the Bldg. 71B conference room, title to be announced.
Items for the calendars may be sent via e-mail to email@example.com, faxed to X6641 or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the May 30 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, May 26.
'83 CHEVY Celebrity, 132K mi., new trans., clean, reliable, $1K/b.o. Barbara, 527-5940
'84 TOYOTA Corolla LE, a/t, a/c, immac. inside & outside, very well maintained, $2250/b.o. 848-1807
'86 NISSAN Sentra, a/t, a/c, p/s, brown, 2-dr, 115K mi., asking $2100/b.o. Eugene, X4190
'87 ACURA Integra, all pwr, cruise control, 1 owner, all records avail., $3500. X5832
'87 MAZDA RX7, dk gray, 96K mi., gd cond., KBB value $5300, asking $4500/b.o. Marek, X5029, 582-5867
'88 TOYOTA truck 4 x 4, 5-spd, roll bar w/KC lights, deluxe push bar, AM/FM cass., new tires, sliding rear window, 170K mi., very gd cond., $3100/b.o. X7840, 709-1395
'89.5 MERCURY Tracer, 4-dr, 76K mi., 5-spd, CD, alarm, 1 owner, runs perfect, $2299/b.o. 665-1466
'94 FORD Explorer Sport, 5-spd, a/c, roof rack, towing pkg., 46K mi., looks & runs great, dk grn, asking $14K/b.o. 895-3584 (msg.)
'95 FORD Escort LX, 5-dr hatchbk, 40K hwy, exc. cond., a/t, a/c, stereo K7, dual air bags, $6850. Nathalie, 527-0823
'95 JEEP Cherokee, red XXL, 4.0L, 2WD, 2-dr, 33K mi., $14K. X6129
MOTORCYCLE, '95 Honda Magna (vfr750), red, exc. cond., many extras, $5800. John, X6730
CAR STEREO, Jensen, radio & cass., detachable face, 6 mo. old, $100/b.o. Nik, X7802, 658-7807
MUSIC COORDINATOR for sm. Alameda church. 523-5011
BABY ITEMS, back pack child carrier, new, infant car seat/carrier & tandem stroller, almost new, $125 for all. Jacki, X4762, 569-0278
BABY/TODDLER CORRAL, 6-panel, 2 avail. $35 ea.; high chair, wood, trad. $30; high chair, stable, modern, wide tray, $35; portable Graco crib, pack & play, $40; bicycle baby/toddler carrier, $50; red toddler tricycle, $20, all very gd cond. X5553
BED, box & mattress, queen sz., gd cond., avail. to trade for full sz. bed (box & mattress, futon, etc.) in similarly gd cond. Gregory, 643-1479
BIKE, Marin City, 21 gears, new-not used, $499 value, asking $300. Marek, X5029
BOAT, Searay cruiser, '82, 22.5 feet, SRV225, 260 Merc outdrive, slps 4, head, galley, lots of teak, 300 hrs., delta canvas, very gd cond., incl. Trailrite tandem axle trailer, best offer. Bob, 376-2211
CABINET DOORS, oak, raised panel, cathedral style, brand new, stained & varnished, $5 ea. George, 674-8504
CLASSICAL GUITAR, Japanese, solid spruce top, gold hardware, exc. cond., w/hard case, $150; Randall Commander 210 guitar amp, solid state 200W, 2-10" spkrs, 2 channels, $100. Steve, X6903, 689-4561
DRAWING TABLE, adj., folding, 48"X30" surface, w/adj. height chair, $100. David, 525-4470
EXERCISE EQUIPMENT, Health-Rider style exerciser w/digital counter, $120/b.o.; home version of Step-Master w/counter, $60/b.o., both units hardly used. Steve, X5927, 254-2402
FUTON, queen sz., pine frame, 6'' mattress, w/cover, <1 yr., $100. 525-2977
FUTON, queen sz. w/oak frame & multicolor/blue trimmed mattress & pillows, exc. cond., $100. X6412
HANDHELD COMPUTER, Newton MessagePad 110, w/built in address book, date book & notepad, 2 rechargeable battery packs, battery charger/stand/pen, Newton connection kit for Macintosh (to do backups to your Macintosh, incl. cable), software (Graffiti, Tapworks, Action Names, Newton Utilities, Other), $250/b.o. Jon, X5974
HOME WATER DISTILLER, stainless steel, 4 liter cap., $50. Carol, X4812
MACINTOSH PowerBook Duo 250 12/200, incl. 14.4 int. modem, dock, keyboard & mouse, Seiko 14" color monitor, $1K; 8MB memory module for PowerBook Duo 210-280, $60. Bill, X6693, 601-1404
NINTENDO 64, mint cond., 2 controllers, 1 memory card & 1 game, $250/b.o. Lisa/Anthony, 620-0129
PLAY STRUCTURE, wooden, 3 swings, incl. 2-person glider, 2 climbing towers, rope-web climber, overhead bars, $240. Michael, X5650
PUPPIES, St. Bernard, AKC, $550 ea. David, 652-3994
SADDLES (3), Western, jr. to adult sz., $100-$150; dinette set, expandable, oval, w/4 chairs, like new, $150; coffee table, dk oak finish, $45; Fisher stereo spkrs, $25 ea.; rattan swivel chairs w/light upholstery, $45 ea.; 10-spd racing bike, Rally, silver, like new, $100; 12-spd m/bike, red, boys, $100. Liona, 210-1119
SANDER, elec. dual action, 1/2 sheet, Black & Decker, $10; lawn edger, elec., heavy duty deluxe, Black & Decker, $15; radial arm saw, Sears Craftsman, 12", tooling, stand, $150; phase converter, adj. frequency, 1 to 5HP, WER Industrial, $295; planer, Woodmaster, Model #715, 5HP, like new, used twice, $650. Chubak, X7310, 237-3894
STEREO SYSTEM, AM-FM stereo receiver, cass. deck, turntable, Fisher speakers w/15" woofers, $165; cabinet w/glass doors for equipment & records, $35. 938-8020
BERKELEY, furn. bdrm in house, 1 blk from LBNL bus stop & UCB, incl. util., fully-stocked kitchen, laundry, big-screen TV w/cable & bay view, avail. 5/20 until 8/15, $560/mo. or best offer. Scott, 665-9077
BERKELEY, Northside, Euclid/Virginia, furn. studio & 2-bdrm, 6/1; College Ave. at Woolsey, 1-bdrm, summer sublet, avail. 6/1. 597-1887
BERKELEY, lg. studio in triplex, unfurn., 2nd flr, 4 rms (1 sm. kit., 1 bath, 1 dining, 1 bdrm), no pets, walking distance to UCB, Shattuck Ave. & Channing Way, nr shops & BART, avail. 6/15, 6 mo. or 12 mo. lease, $500/mo.+utils. firstname.lastname@example.org
BERKELEY, furn. 1 or 2 bdrm apt, backyd, walk to UCB, gd public trans., sublet for July & Aug., $900/mo., will also trade for apt or house in Paris, London, Florence or Jerusalem for a mo. or more. Deane, X5063, 848-8212
BERKELEY, Carleton/Grant, nr BART & Berkeley Bowl, 10 min. drive to LBNL, newly renovated 2-bdrm apt, ground flr of 2-story Victorian house, sunny so. exposure, front garden, washer/dryer, custom tile flrs, no smoking, no pets, $1100/mo. incl. part utils. Richard, X6320
BERKELEY, Northside, furn. rm in 4-bdrm house, 5 blks from UCB, nr LBNL, 2 other visiting scholars live here, $500/mo.+utils. 841-2749
BERKELEY, 2 blks so. of UCB, 5 min. walk to LBNL shuttle, furn. studio, bth, kitchen w/stove, microwave & refrig., no smokers, no pets, avail. about 6/1 to 8/1, $485/mo., addt'l $25 for indoor parking. 843-7808
NO. BERKELEY, rm avail. in 4-bdrm, 2-bth Craftsman house, hardwd flrs, w/d, yd, sun-porch, lots of living space, non-smoking, friendly household, academic & professional, $425/mo.+util., last mo. + $200 dep. Laura or Dan, 848-0827 (eve.)
CLAYTON, share new house in Oakurst Country Club Hills, Mt. Diablo Park, golf, pvt bthrm, washer/dryer, piano, deck+view, garage, $475/mo. Eric, X6836, 672-6278
KENSINGTON, sm. rm w/hardwood flrs. in 4-bdrm house, lg. yd, fruit trees, big kitchen, semi-cooperative household, avail. 6/1 (negot.), $415/mo. Samantha or Steve, 524-2668
OAKLAND HILLS, sunny rm in 5-bdrm villa, pvt bth, bay view, hdwd, 2 marble frpls, 3 blks to Rockridge BART, W/D, NS, avail. 6/1, $520/mo. + util. 595-0737
ROCKRIDGE, Lawton Ave., rm in 3-bdrm, 2-bth apt, washer & dryer, dishwasher, 3 min. walk to BART & LBNL Shuttle Stop, $500/mo. +utils. Henry, 658-7807
WANTED: 2/3 bdrm house in Albany, El Cerrito or Berkeley area for mother & 5 yr. old child, prefer yd & off-st. parking, washer/dryer or hookups. Jane, X6036
WANTED: furn. 1-bdrm apt w/kitchen, to rent from 8/1-31, within walking distance to LBNL shuttle. Barbara, X5831, Prof. Markus Luty, U. of Maryland, (301) 405-6018 (ofc.)
WANTED: furn. house for visiting Prof. & family from Turkey, 2 or 3 bdrms, early July to mid Sept. (some flex.). Ian, X4174
WANTED: UCB student & employee of LBNL needs a place to stay in city of Berkeley for 5/25-6/1 (7 days), can't pay too much but willing to pay a little, non smoker, quiet, have a few boxes of books & clothes. Rafi, 664-0366
WANTED: rm or sm. studio in Walnut Creek for student (18 yr. old niece of LBNL employee) from May-Sept. Peter, X5021, 524-8873
WANTED: 1-bdrm apt in Berkeley for visiting postdoc at LBNL. Jean-Luc, X4934, 848-4934
WANTED: 3-bdrm house in No. Berkeley, Lab family w/mature children, no pets, long-term rental. Carol, X4812, email@example.com
WANTED: 2-bdrm townhouse, condo or house (a garage is a plus), from June '97-May '98 for visiting scientist & family, within a 2 mi. radius of LBNL. Y.-C. Wang, (201) 216-8310 (ofc.), (201) 963-5397 (home), (201) 216-8306 (fax), firstname.lastname@example.org. G. Hermes, X5006
WANTED: 1 bdrm in an apt/house in LBNL area for 27 yr. old female Belgian visiting researcher & 3 yr. old daughter, visiting LBNL for 1 year, beginning 7/1, speaks Dutch, English, French & German, likes to cook, and make desserts. Karen Verbist, 32-3-218-02-63, 32-3-218-02-57 (fax), email@example.com, G. Hermes, X5006
WANTED: furn. house to rent, nr Berkeley for 1 mo., for 2 adults arriving at LBNL 7/1. Prof. Daniel Freedman, (617) 253-4354, firstname.lastname@example.org.
WANTED: furn. 2-bdrm apt for visiting German scientist w/wife & mature daughter, for 1 mo. starting 7/16, all non-smokers. Heinz-Josef.Weyer@psi.ch, X7942
WANTED: studio, 1-bdrm apt or shared housing starting 7/1 (5/15, 7/15 OK too), prefer Berkeley or Albany, long term rental, LBNL employee, German scholar, non smoker, no pets, but don't have anything against them, rent around $500/mo. Wilk, X5942
WANTED: furn. house for the mo. of July for visiting German Prof., wife & 3 children (4, 6, 10), Berkeley, Oakland, or surrounding areas OK. Jen, X4058
WANTED: house/apt under $1K/mo. to rent for sabbatical, approx. Aug. '97 to Summer '98, nr UCB/LBNL, don`t smoke, no kids, no pets. Prof. J. Spence, email@example.com, (602) 965-6486 (wk), (602) 968-5944 (home)
WANTED: 2-bdrm house/apt in Berkeley/Albany/EC for 4 to 6 mo. while we remodel ours. Jonathan, X4148, 525-5540
HAWAII, 20 mi. below Hilo on rainy side of Big Island, convenient to Univ. of Hawaii & orchid plantation, 2-bdrm, 2-bth house, nr schools, shopping & rec. center, 1 mi. to ocean bluff, $450/mo., possible lease-option to buy for $60K. X6005
LAGUNA BEACH, 2+bdrm, 1-1/2 bth house, washer/dryer, utils. incl., 2 blks to beach, walk to village, $2K/mo. or $1800/mo. for 3. 845-5563
SO. LAKE TAHOE, Tahoe Keys, 3-bdrm, 2.5 bth house, upstairs living, on the water, fenced yd, quiet area, nr attractions, water & mountains views. Bob, 376-2211
PICNIC TABLE, redwood, seats 6+, gd cond., you pick it up (Albany). Nance, X7328, 524-1259
EDITOR: Mary Bodvarsson, X4014, firstname.lastname@example.org
STAFF WRITERS: Jeffery Kahn, X4019; Lynn Yarris, X5374
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Jon Bashor, X5849; Allan Chen, X6249; Monica Friedlander, X5122
PRODUCTION: Alice Ramirez
FLEA MARKET / CALENDAR: Mary Padilla, X5771
email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org
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