A technique that enhances the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for molecules in solution offers intriguing new possibilities for chemical research and medical imaging. The technique, which has been reported in this week's issue of the journal Science, was developed by scientists at Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, and Tel-Aviv University.
The new technique is based on the use of xenon, whose atomic nuclei have been "hyperpolarized" by laser light to give off strong NMR signals. Xenon is an inert gas that is readily absorbed in solutions and commonly used as an anesthetic. When hyperpolarized xenon gas is bubbled into a solution, polarization from xenon nuclei is transferred to the nuclei of molecules in the solution, amplifying their NMR/MRI signals.
Leading the team of collaborators who developed this new technique were Alexander Pines of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and UCB's Department of Chemistry, and Gil Navon of the School of Chemistry at Tel-Aviv University. Working with them were Stephan Appelt, Toomas Room, Yi-Qiao Song, and Rebecca Taylor.
Martha Krebs, director of DOE's Office of Energy Research, which funded the research, said she is enthusiastic about the promise of its results.
"The research achievements of Alex Pines have been consistently outstanding for over two decades," she said. "These new results are a major step forward in dramatically extending the power of NMR in chemical and biological research."
Both NMR spectroscopy and MRI imaging are based on the tiny magnetic moments produced by the spin of atomic nuclei. Whereas NMR spectroscopy yields a spectrum of lines from individual atoms that can be used to identify molecules, MRI produces recognizable spatial images.
A handicap for NMR/MRI has been the technology's inherent low sensitivity. Obtaining a spectrum or an image depends upon an excess of nuclei in a sample with spins oriented in either an "up" or "down" direction. For an equal number of spins pointing up and down, no NMR/MRI signal would be obtained.
"The natural population difference between up and down nuclear spins is usually no more than one in 100,000 in NMR magnets at room temperature," Pines says. "This low spin polarization is a persistent challenge for NMR."
To get around that challenge, researchers have resorted to a number of imaginative schemes in which the spins of atomic nuclei in a sample are polarized through assorted combinations of low temperatures, high-pulsed magnetic fields, and exposure to intense microwave radiation.
Alfred Kastler of the University of Paris won the 1966 Nobel prize in physics for his discovery that circularly polarized light can be used to transfer angular momentum from photons to the spins of atoms. Thomas Carver, and then William Happer, of Princeton University further developed the "optical-pumping" process. They obtained hyperpolarized helium and xenon gas, which yielded strong NMR signals that were recently used to image human lungs.
"We have now devised a method that uses both optical pumping and the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) to transfer enhanced polarization from hyperpolarized xenon gas to molecules in solution," says Pines. "We call this method Spin-Polarization-Induced NOE or SPINOE (pronounced SPIN-OH-EE)."
The researchers say the process that polarizes solution nuclei when they come into contact with the xenon gas is not very efficient. However, this inefficiency is compensated by the hyperpolarization of the xenon nuclei.
"Our strategy is like that of the boxer who punches infrequently but throws blows mostly in the same direction," Pines says. "Every area in a molecule or sample accessed by the hyperpolarized xenon is going to light up to some extent with an enhanced NRM signal."
In their Science paper, Pines and his colleagues reported that with SPINOE, "it is possible to image not only the hyperpolarized xenon but also the molecular environment in which it is accommodated."
Pines and Navon hesitate to speculate about the potential applications of SPINOE to areas of materials and medical research until further experiments have been done. Collaborations, however, are already under way with other research teams at Berkeley Lab to explore several possibilities. For example, SPINOE might be used to enhance the NMR signals of proteins in solution, or it might be used to follow the trail of hyperpolarized xenon in blood by proton MRI.
CAPTION: The team that developed the new NMR/MRI technique included (from left) Yi-Qiao Song, Alex Pines, Rebecca Taylor, Toomas Room, Gil Navon, and Stephan Appelt.
CAPTION: A new NMR technique called SPINOE introduces specially treated xenon gas into a solution and lights up the NMR signal from the solution's molecules.
Actually, none of the above. The preliminary tagging is part of a comprehensive new vegetation maintenance program beginning this spring to ensure a fire-safe sustainable landscape at Berkeley Lab. Look for details on how it works and what it will mean to the environment in the April 12 issue of Currents.
While all members of the Lab community are invited to participate, the talk should be of special interest to anyone interested in gender equity in education and the workplace. An important component of the talk is also devoted to childrearing and the subtle (and not so subtle) ways that parents unknowingly train children to assume stereotypical gender roles.
Buswell and Kekelis were awarded a grant by the American Association of University Women to develop the workshop to help teachers and parents examine their assumptions regarding gender development and to offer concrete suggestions encouraging gender-fair practices at home and school. The program was modified into a lunch-hour presentation for the Laboratory.
The first event is the presentation "On Plastics Recycling--From Technology to Politics!" by Stephen Seuss at noon on Tuesday, April 2. Suess heads the Plactory, a plastics factory he started 19 years ago in Live Oak, Calif.
In 1990, Suess began manufacturing products out of recycled plastic and found that it was not very different from working with virgin plastic. The Plactory now collects half of its $1 million annual revenue from recycled plastic products. In 1993, it was named California Recycler of the Year by the California Resource Recovery Association.
Suess' talk will address big business approaches and small business alternatives in plastics recycling, including the technical aspects, economics, and politics behind it.
On Monday, April 8, the Computing Sciences Division will replace Meeting Maker 1.5 with a new version, Meeting Maker MMXP. The new system has updated names for guests and resources, runs on PCs as well as Macintoshes, and offers several new features, such as a "View" menu that allows users to review both daily and monthly schedules.
Users who wish to preserve their current schedules should ensure that they have a login name and software for MMXP now, and reconstruct their calendars on the new version before the April 8 changeover date. Meeting Maker will not "import" meeting information from the old version to the new, so this needs to be done manually. Coordinators for conference rooms especially should move reservations to the new system as soon as possible (for assistance, send e-mail to [email protected]). Since the old system will not be accessible after the changeover date, archival meeting data should be printed out and saved.
The Meeting Maker Transition page on the WWW ((http://www.lbl.gov/~mmadmin/)) gives important details on the changeover, including: registration, installation, logging in, finding your server, recharge information, and responses to frequently asked questions.
The conference, which drew more than 800 young science enthusiasts, focuses on careers in math, science and engineering. Workshops emphasize the importance and fun of science education and allow students to meet women working in science-related professions.
The ALS team--Jane Cross, Deborah Dixon, Annette Greiner and Elizabeth Moxon--presented a variety of activities to demonstrate techniques for science communication. A highlight was the appearance of Annette Greiner as "Professor Malcomprendi," visiting lecturer in gastronomic science from the University of Ptomainia, who challenged students to instruct her in the science of synthesizing a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. With peanut butter flying and lots of laughter, workshop participants quickly realized the need for clarity and understanding one's audience when conveying information. Writing and editing activities, followed by a panel discussion, filled the rest of the one-hour workshop.
ALS staff participation in this event is part of an ongoing outreach effort to establish links between the ALS and the community.
All children who wish to participate in scheduled activities must register in advance. The deadline for registration is Friday, April 12. This year, a registration fee of $10 per child will be charged to cover expenses for lunch and the ice cream social. Assignments to workshops will be made on a first-come, first-served basis.
In the proposed schedule, children will meet at 9 a.m. in the Bldg. 50 auditorium for an opening ceremony. Afterwards, each child may participate in two hands-on workshops led by scientist/teacher teams or spend time in the parent's workplace. Participants may then eat lunch as a group or join their parents. Group lunch expenses will be covered by the registration fee.
In the afternoon, participants may choose to spend time with their parents in the workplace, or participate in science-discovery and creative activities, such as skits and art projects. The day will end with an ice cream social.
Registration forms are located in the lobbies of the cafeteria and buildings 2, 50, 70, 70A, 77, 88, and 90. Watch Currents for more details as they develop. If you have questions about Daughters to Work Day, you may leave a voicemail at X6813.
CAPTION: Daughters to Work Day offers an opportunity for our children to visit the workplace and experience a day of hands-on science. This year's event includes lunch and an ice-cream social.
When: 9:30 a.m., Thursday, April 4
Where: Bldg. 50 auditorium
Who: All employees invited to attend
Procurement is hosting its annual information session at 9:30 a.m. on Thursday, April 4, in the Bldg. 50 auditorium. This interactive session on the Berkeley Lab acquisition process should be of special interest to technical coordinators and division administrators. Refreshments will be served.
During the session, procurement representatives and others will be on hand to discuss such topics as:
Because Procurement interacts with many other Lab operations, including Property, Shipping, Receiving, Budget, and Accounts Payable, representatives from these areas will also be available to answer questions.
If you are planning to attend the session, please contact Procurement's Eva McNeil at [email protected] or X4546. For more information about the session, contact Julie Rodriguez Jones at X4583 or [email protected] For more information on the Laboratory's purchasing system, visit the Procurement home page at (http://purch1.lbl.gov.)
Money Market, 6.07%
Insurance Company Contract, 7.98%
* past performance does not guarantee future results
The Berkeley Lab Calendar is published biweekly here on the World Wide Web and in Currents by the Public Information Department. Employees can list a meeting, class, or event in the Calendar by using this submission form. The deadline for submissions is 5 p.m. on Monday in the week that Currents is published.
In addition to the events listed below, Berkeley Lab's Washington, D.C. Projects office is hosting a Science and Technology Seminars series.Scientific Conferences
WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SEMINAR
A workshop on "Raising Competent Girls: Gender Issues at School and Home" will be presented at noon in the Bldg. 50 Auditorium.
THEORETICAL PHYSICS SEMINAR
"Branes In Type IIB String Theory" will be presented by Malcolm Perry of UCSD at 2:30 p.m. in 430 Birge Hall.
DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING COLLOQUIUM
"The Mixed Waste Management Facility - A National Testbed for the Evaluation of Emerging Waste Treatment Technologies" will be presented by Ron Streit of LLNL at 3:30 p.m. in 3105 Etcheverry; refreshments, 3:15 p.m.
PHYSICS DEPARTMENT COLLOQUIUM
"Cosmic Crisis or Concordance?" will be presented by Josh Frieman of Fermilab and the University of Chicago at 4:30 p.m. in 1 LeConte Hall.
"(Open) p-Branes in M-Theory" will be presented by Katrin Becker of ITP at 2:10 p.m. in 430 Birge Hall.
"Reaction Mechanisms for Ignition and Combustion" will be presented by Jurgen Warnatz of Universitat Heidelberg, Germany, at 4 p.m. in Room 3110 of Etcheverry Hall.
LIFE SCIENCES SEMINAR
"Atherosclerosis and Redox-Sensitive Genes" will be presented by R. Wayne Alexander of Emory University School of Medicine at 4 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 Auditorium.
PHYSICS DIVISION RESEARCH PROGRESS MEETING
"Measurement of the Top Quark Mass at D0" will be presented by Erich Varness of LBNL at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5132; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.
"Stereodynamics of Statistical Dissociations" will be presented by Greg Hall of BNL at 11 a.m. in 425 Latimer Hall.
ENERGY AND RESOURCES GROUP Colloquium
"A New Approach To Re-Allocating California's Water Resources" will be presented by Brent Haddad of UCB at 3:30 p.m. in 160 Kroeber Hall.
7 a.m. - 2 p.m. in Bldg. 70A-3377
7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. near Bldg. 77
9:30 a.m., Bldg. 50 Auditorium (see article on page 4)
BUILDING ENERGY SEMINAR
"Project Hatchery Alameda: An Advanced Transportation Cluster at the Alameda Naval Air Station" will be presented by John Bosel of CALSTART at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.
CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY SEMINAR
"Single (dual) Molecule Spectroscopy: A Molecular Yard-stick to Study Interactions Between Biological Macromolecules" will be presented by Thilo Enderle at noon in Bldg. 50A-5132.
SURFACE SCIENCE AND CATALYSIS SEMINAR
"Growth Modes of Ultrathin Metal Films on the Ag-111 Single Crystal Surface" will be presented by Alan Slavin of Trent University, Peterborough, Canada, at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 Auditorium.
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY COLLOQUIUM
"A Population of `Normal' Galaxies at z>3" will be presented by Chuck Steidel of CIT at 4 p.m. in 1 Le Conte Hall; refreshments, 3:30 p.m. at 661 Campbell Hall.
PHYSICS DIVISION RESEARCH PROGRESS MEETING
"Search for Supersymmetry at the Fermilab Tevatron" will be presented by Andy White of the University of Texas, Arlington, at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5132; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.
"Wake Fields in Accelerators: Progress and Applications" will be presented by Samuel Heifets of SLAC at 10:30 a.m. in the Bldg. 71 Conference Room.
"The Shape and Color of Atoms at Surfaces" will be presented by Miguel Salmeron of LBNL at 4:30 p.m. in 1 Le Conte Hall.
First Aid (EHS 116), 8 a.m.-noon, Bldg. 48-109
BUILDING ENERGY SEMINAR
"The Industrial Assessment Center at SFSU: A DOE Sponsored Project" will be presented by Ahmad R. Ganji from SFSU at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.
Lockout/Tagout Training (EHS 256), 9:30-11:30 a.m., Bldg. 51-201
Special meeting at noon in the lower cafeteria.
Officer's Meeting at 12:10 p.m. in Bldg. 2-100
Introduction to EH&S Safety (EHS 010), 9:30-11:30 a.m., Bldg. 51-201
Fire Extinguisher Use (EHS 530), 10-11:30 a.m., Bldg. 48-109
BUILDING ENERGY SEMINAR
"Environmental Accounting" will be presented by Betsy Cantwell of LLNL at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.
SURFACE SCIENCE AND CATALYSIS SEMINAR
"Synthesis of Highly Organic Polymeric Materials via a Monomer
Self-Assembly Approach" will be presented by Douglas Gin of UCB at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 Auditorium.
Pre-registration is required for all courses except Introduction to EH&S. For all other classes, send e-mail to LBNL Training-Registration in the HR zone or send a fax to X4072 with your name, employee ID number, extension and class name, date & code (or call X5999).
'77 FORD LTD wgn, lt. blue, gd cond., runs fine, a/t, p/s, p/b, $950. Gary, 235-0243
'79 MERCEDES BENZ 300D diesel, ivory, 25K mi. after rebuilt engine, 4-dr, moonroof, 2 sets of new custom-made white seat covers, new cass. player AM/FM, $4290. Leo, X7320, 222-4739
'84 JEEP Cherokee, 4-wd, new brakes, battery & tires incl. full sz. spare, removable face AM/FM stereo cass., $4500. Tom, 547-5445
'85 CHEVY Cav. conv., 2.8L V-6, 115K mi., AM/FM/cass., $2750. 530-3044
'85 NISSAN Sentra, silver, 2-dr, 5-spd, 140K mi., looks very good, runs great, needs new clutch, $1500. 524-3751
'85 SAAB 900, 4-dr, 106K mi., exc. int., 5-spd, CD, $4K. Pat, 874-7877 (day), 568-6386 (eve.)
'85 WINNEBAGO, 27' Chieftan, 36K mi., 454 Chev., queen bed, awning, generator, microwave/convection, tow pkg., air, all extras, $17.5K. Rich, X6015, 439-3418
'86 VW GTI, sunrf, leather, sports pkg., new muffler, battery, smog & tires, $3800. 528-3575
'87 NISSAN Sentra, 165K mi., 5-spd, gd cond., reliable, $1K. Klaus, X7779, 540-1206 (eve.)
'88 HONDA Civic 16v HB, 4-spd, 125K fwy mi., w/all service records, Thule ski rack incl., orig. owner, reliable, $2500/b.o. 865-9943 (msg.)
'89 PONTIAC Grand Am SE, 95K mi., many options, sunrf, alloy wheels, new trans., muffler & battery, $4500. Marion, 215-2305
'89 TOYOTA Corolla, 2-dr, 66K mi., AM/FM cass., a/c, 5-spd, exc. cond., $5K/b.o. Carry, (415) 431-2980
'91 HONDA Accord LX, a/t, all pwr, 85K fwy mi., orig. owner, new brakes/timing belt, exc. cond., all service records, $9400/b.o. 865-9943 (msg.)
'92 MITSUBISHI Eclipse GSX Turbo, AWD, ABS, 3-dr, red, 50K mi., 6CD Alpine stereo, new tires, a/c, 5-spd, CC, PW, PD, very clean, 1 owner, $11.5K/b.o. Cheryl, X5917, 932-8410 (eve.)
'94 TOYOTA 4-Runner, V-6/SR5, a/t, loaded, 27K mi., extended warranty, $24,959/b.o. 682-6489 (after 6 p.m.)
MOTORCYCLE, '81 Suzuki GS450E, gd cond., runs great, $700. Jim, 215-2305
MOTORCYCLE, '93 Honda CB1100F, showroom cond., $1950. Gary, 235-0243
CAR STEREO, Toyota/Fujitsu, AM/FM, digital display, 6 station memory, 1 yr. old, $75/b.o. Benerva, X4787, 849-9560
RV AWNING, 8 ft., retractable, $175. Karl, X6129
WHEELS & TIRES, 14" Al mag wheels w/BFG 234/50 tires, exc. cond., $425/four. Stephen, 527-8210
GARAGE for 1953 MG TD w/space for workbench. 848-5687
GUITAR for beginning guitar class, less than $100. Juliet, 649-2034
LAWNMOWER, elec., to purchase for reasonable price. Susan, 528-1935
CORNER CABINET, traditional, cherry, w/glass front door; many antiques also. 528-3575
DINING SET, Victorian, very lg. turned-leg table & buffet, chairs & leaves, seats 6 - 12, $950; wall map, 1907 US/DOI map, 5 ft. X 6 ft., $200; table saw, 8.25" Makita tabletop, unused, $200; freezer, 5.5 cu. ft., mini-chest style, $85. Karl, X6129
DISHWASHER, full sz., portable Kitchen Aid, solid wood chopping block, incl. faucet attachment, 3 yr. old, $500; MTB, full Deore XT/XTR, $650; MTB, commuter special, $200; Windsurfer, 11.5' w/2 sails & hardware, $650. Rick, X7341
EXERCISE BICYCLE, $50; boy's 16" bicycle, $50; boy's 12" bicycle, $25. Steve, X4304
EXERCISE MACHINE, Healthrider, brand new, never used, $275. Alan, 234-9041
FUTON, like new, queen sz., black wooden frame, folds very easily into long couch, futon cover incl., $250. Aindrea, X5946, 655-9989
MATTRESS, Simmons Beautyrest "Royalty", twin sz., $100; airbrush & compressor, Badger airbrush, used once, sold together, $125; North Face backpack, used once, paid $259, $150; sleeping bag, $25. Alison, 845-4634
ROLLERBLADES, woman's sz. 8, used twice, wrist/arm/knee pads incl., $70/b.o.; freestanding butcher block, wood, barely used, $50. 865-9943 (msg.)
SAILBOATS (2), 22' Columbia, fiberglass w/fin keel, sails, 7.5 hp outboard engine, toilet & galley, slps 4, $1K; Mystic 24' w/full keel, sails, 4 cyl. atomic gas inboard engine, standing headroom, toilet & galley, slps 4, $2K. Nan, 527-4298
TENNIS RACKET, Prince Spectrum comp series 110, grip 4-1/4, $75. Anne, X7337, 531-7837
TV, 19" RCA, 1 yr. old $160; VCR, 2 yr. old, $100; 12-spd bike, $75; u-lock, $20; desk, 29"x59", $40; microwave oven, Kenmore, full sz., $35; dining table, $10. X6878, 528-3408
VACUUM CLEANER, Regina Housekeeper Plus, model 5000, w/attachments, gd cond., $25. Fred, X6354, Leola, 524-5825
BERKELEY, lg., unfurn. 2-bdrm, 2-bth apt, nr LBNL/UCB, carpet, deck, garage, pool, avail. 4/15, $1250/mo.+dep. Alex, 644-3120
BERKELEY, 2 rms avail. in furn. home, nr UCB & Rose Garden, washer/dryer, views, frpl, hot tub, decks, $450 & $500/mo. David, 525-4470
BERKELEY, Northside, furn. 1-bdrm apt, summer sublet, residential neighborhood, hardwd flrs, many closets, well maintained, avail. 5/14-8/20, $700/mo. incl. utils. Kristine, 843-0160
NO. BERKELEY, 2-bdrm craftsman cottage, dining rm, frpl, cent. heat, decks, walk to UCB, shops, LBNL shuttle & BART downtown, avail. May to quiet non-smoking couple, $1350/mo. Rob, 843-5987
EL CERRITO HILLS, sunny rm w/patio & yd in house, sep. entrance & bth, share kitchen, washer, dryer, nr bus & BART, $385 & utils. Daniel, X5827, 527-8756
KENSINGTON, lg. rm w/pvt entrance, pvt bath & sm. kitchen (only warm plate or small counter top camping stove can be used), sharing of the main house kitchen, if necessary, laundry fac., backyd, on the 67 bus line, ~4 blks from Tilden Park, $400/mo. + utils. Sonia, 524-9496
KENSINGTON, furn. 3-bdrm house, Gate view, deck, lg. garden, from end of May to early July, all/part, $1200/mo. 524-1641
OAKLAND, Mormon Temple neighborhood, fwy access to Berkeley, room, pvt bath, share kitchen, washer/dryer & utils., $400/mo. 530-7759
OAKLAND, sunny, spacious, 1-bdrm apt in triplex, nr Rockridge shopping ctr. & public trans., no smoking, no pets, $485/mo. 655-9658, 428-1893
ORINDA, furn. sm. 3-bdrm house, 1 1/2-bth, 3 blks from BART, avail. 4/8, $1500/mo. Scott, (916) 898-5747, (916) 894-5519
RICHMOND, well-maintained, partially furn. 3-bdrm (1 lg.), 2-bth, house, remodeled kitchen, nr E.C. Del Norte BART & I-80 between San Pablo & Arlington, nr shopping ctr., washer/dryer, 1-car garage, backyd w/deck, non-smokers, no pets, $980/mo. + dep. Rose, X7554, 233-8620 (msg./eve.)
WALNUT CREEK, unfurn. 2-bdrm, 1-bth apt, in duplex on hill, Mt. Diablo view, upper unit, washer/dryer installed, fully equipped kitchen, carport, a/c, lg. yd, dog or cat acceptable, 5-min. walk to BART, 1 yr. lease, $875/mo. + utils. & dep. Denise, 935-2285 (eve.)
WANTED: visiting French scientist, spouse & 3 children, want to exchange 4-bdrm apt in center Paris for house near LBNL starting 6/20 until end of Aug., car exchange also possible. 33 1 43389440 (France), [email protected]
WANTED: summer rental, July/Aug., 3-bdrm house in Berkeley, Kensington or No. Oakland for visiting prof. & family from CERN. Luanne, X5853
WANTED: house mid-June thru July for visiting French scientists. Fred, X4892
FOUND: watch on McMillan Rd., 3/26. John, X7941
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