March 10, 2000
Lunar Impact History Yields Surprising Results Panel Gives ALS a Thumbs Up

Lunar Impact History Yields Surprising Results

Implications for evolution of life on Earth,
our understanding of the solar system

By Lynn Yarris

Should evolution's "survival of the fittest" creed be supplemented with an appendage that reads "survival of the catastrophic?" A team of Berkeley researchers, analyzing the history of impact cratering on the moon, has reported a surprising increase in the frequency of impacts over the past 400 million years that may have played a central role in the evolution of life on Earth.

Rich Muller of Berkeley Lab and UCB.
In the March 10 issue of the journal Science, researchers with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, and the Berkeley Geochronology Center (BGC) announced the discovery that impact cratering on the moon (and, by inference, on earth) suddenly increased about 400 million years ago.

"From our point of view, that's in the recent past," says Timothy Culler, a UC Berkeley graduate student who is earning his Ph.D. on the project. Culler is one of the co-authors of the paper in Science, along with Richard Muller, who holds joint appointments with Berkeley Lab's Physics Division and UC Berkeley's Physics Department; Paul Renne, a UC Berkeley geologist and director of the BGC, an independent, non-profit research institution; and Timothy Becker, BGC laboratory manager and an expert in radiometric measurements.

The data published by this team show that the impact cratering rate had dropped steadily until the unexpected rise when the impact rate returned to the same levels as 3.5 billion years ago. The sudden increase coincides with the "Cambrian explosion," a period in which life on Earth took off with a dramatic burst in the number and diversity of species.

"Although most people assume that impacts cause death and destruction, it is possible that the additional stress of the impacts forced life to become more diverse and flexible," says Muller. "Just as we stress trees through pruning to make them give more fruit, the stress cause by catastrophic impacts may have forced evolution into new directions."

Noting that the earliest records of life on earth date from the period approximately 3.5 billion years ago, when the Berkeley data show the intensity of impacts was decreasing, Renne says: "Maybe, as others have speculated before, life began on Earth many times, but the comets only stopped wiping it out about three or four billion years ago."

Muller originally suggested the dating of lunar spherules as a way of getting evidence for or against the existence of comet showers, brief periods when the number of comets in the sky increases, raising the risk that several of them are likely to hit the Earth at similar times.

Scanning electron microscope picture of a glass spherule brought back from the moon by Apollo 11. The spherule itself, which is about 250 microns in diameter, has been magnified 30 times. Photo by Tim Culler/UC Berkeley
Dating the chronology of impact craters on earth is difficult because of erosion, sedimentation and plate tectonics. Although lunar craters are preserved in a near pristine state, it was presumed that a sample would have to be collected from each individual crater in order to date it, requiring an expensive revisit to the Moon.

Muller contended that the required data could be found in any gram of lunar soil, including the samples brought back by the Apollo missions. The impact record would be preserved in spherules -- microscopic glass beads formed when droplets of molten basalt splashed out of a crater by the heat and force of an impact subsequently cooled and hardened.

The Berkeley team obtained from NASA a gram of lunar soil inside of which they found 155 spherules. The age of each of these tiny spherules was determined at the BGC with an ultrasensitive technique based on the ratios between two argon isotopes. From the ratio of argon-40 to argon-39, as measured by neutron irradiation followed by laser-driven mass spectroscopy, the age of the spherules could be determined.

These 155 lunar spherules ranged in size from less than 100 microns to more than 250 microns, and came from lunar soil picked up in 1971 by the Apollo 14 mission crew near Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains), the dark crater that dominates the moon's face. Statistical and chemical analyses showed that the spherules studied came from approximately 146 different craters.

"Even though we don't know which crater was the source of each spherule, the distribution of the ages of the spherules from a single lunar site should reflect the age distribution of craters on the Moon," Muller said.

The results of this study not only carry implications for the evolution of life on Earth but also for our understanding of the solar system.

Explains Muller, "It is not difficult to understand the slow decrease. It corresponds to a gradual cleansing of the solar system by Jupiter, the sun, and passing stars. But it is difficult to conceive of a mechanism that could trigger an increase, particularly one that lasted 400 million years."

Muller suggests that the sudden increase offers indirect evidence for a companion star to the sun. When the existence of such a star was postulated in 1984, Muller suggested that it be called Nemesis, after the Greek goddess of retribution.

"The increase in impacts could be due to a sudden change in the orbit of Nemesis," Muller says. "If a passing star perturbed Nemesis into a more eccentric orbit, that would account for the increase in impacts."

Panel Gives ALS a Thumbs Up

By Lynn Yarris

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) received a unanimous endorsement from a prestigious review panel appointed by DOE's Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). Citing the prompt response of Berkeley Lab management to the criticisms of an earlier BESAC review panel, the elevation of the ALS to divisional status and the appointment of Daniel Chemla to head it, plus improved interactions with its users, its scientific advisory committee and the University of California, the BESAC review panel recommended that any penalties imposed on the synchrotron facility be lifted and there be no further reviews in the near future.

Materials scientist Antoni Tomsia and physicist Eduardo Saiz have developed a bio- active silicate glass that coats metal implants and binds with both metal and bone for long term success.
"It is clear that the ALS is doing an outstanding job in many areas and that none of the criticisms of [the earlier review] are still valid," declared Yves Petroff, chair of this latest review and director general of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Petroff and his panel presented their report to BESAC in a meeting in Gaithersburg, Maryland, on Feb. 28.

The ALS is an electron synchrotron designed to accelerate electrons to energies of 1.5 billion electron volts (GeV) and extract from them -- using either bending, wiggler, or undulator magnetic devices -- premier beams of ultraviolet and low energy or "soft" x-ray light. As one of DOE's designated "national user facilities," the ALS is available to qualified researchers throughout the United States.

In 1997, a BESAC review panel of DOE's synchrotron light sources chaired by Robert J. Birgeneau of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology made the ALS a low priority in its recommendations based on several criticisms. The new report panel chaired by Petroff praised Berkeley Lab management for "reacting very quickly to the criticism," which the new panel found only "partly justified."

In reviewing the technological capabilities of the ALS itself, the Petroff report credited the ALS with having "the lowest horizontal emittance in the world" for synchrotron light sources at below 2 GeV energies and for being "very reliable," with an availability rating of 95 percent. Of the scheduled installation of superconducting bend magnets in the storage ring, the report said this upgrade will "enhance considerably the capacity of the facility."

A major thrust of the Petroff report was the quality of science at the ALS. "Areas of excellence" were cited in structural biology; femtosecond and picosecond dynamics in condensed matter and gas phases; electronic properties in superconductors and magnetic nanostructures; surface science, thin films and x-ray microscopy; ultra-high resolution spectroscopy of gas phase atoms, ions and molecules; nanoscale chemistry, biochemistry and catalysis; and analytical sciences and metrology.

The Petroff report also expressed "strong support" for upcoming projects that include molecular environment science, magnetic and polymer nanostructure research, and femtosecond spectroscopy and diffraction.

"We believe that in the area of femtosecond spectroscopy and diffraction the ALS is in a unique position," said Petroff. "It is the only center in the world able to produce 100 femtosecond pulses [of x-rays]." A femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a second.

Yves Petroff, Director-General of the European Synchrotron Research Facility in Grenoble, was chair of the BESAC panel that reviewed the ALS.
The combination of the ALS with a femtosecond laser, said the Petroff panel, positions Berkeley Lab to be a "world leader for many years to come" in the study of ultrafast chemical reactions, phase transitions, surface dynamics and a wide range of critical biological processes that operate on the sub-picosecond timescale. The long-time dream of direct x-ray experiments on this timescale should also be realized.

Much of the criticism of the earlier Birgeneau report focused on frustrations expressed by ALS users outside of Berkeley Lab. The Petroff report notes that the number of ALS users has tripled since the Birgeneau report and that these users were "very pleased" with the appointment of Chemla to direct the facility. (Since opening in 1993, the ALS has been used by more than 500 scientific groups.) Under Chemla's leadership, the report said, the ALS management and the user community have established "productive, respectful and direct two-way communication."

The Petroff report recommended that DOE increase the size of the ALS scientific support group, fund more post-doctoral associates, and support the ALS plan to have a new building adjacent to the facility to provide more office space for the users and additional laboratories for sample preparation and experimental staging.

Members of BESAC unanimously accepted the Petroff report and its recommendations.

Berkeley Lab Gets Winning Marks Across the Board

By Ron Kolb

For the first time since annual performance-based contracting was implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy for its affiliated laboratories in the early 1990s, a lab managed by the University of California has earned an "outstanding" rating - the highest possible - for its management and operations. And that laboratory is Berkeley Lab.

"You and the entire staff and management of the Laboratory are to be congratulated," wrote DOE Berkeley Site Office manager Dick Nolan to Lab Director Charles Shank. "The appraisal shows impressive results in almost all aspects of the Laboratory's performance during FY 1999, including `outstanding' ratings in six of the nine areas of Operations and Administration, as well as in the Science and Technology programs."

Among the areas of review that were cited for consistently high marks were environmental restoration and waste management, facilities management, and procurement. In the science areas, performers maintaining outstanding records included the life and biophysical sciences, computing, and chemical sciences. Nolan particularly called out significant performance gains at the Advanced Light Source and in property management.

Each year, the Berkeley, Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories engage in a "self-assessment," a process that is laid out in Appendix F of the DOE contracts with the University of California. The results of those assessments are then forwarded to the DOE, which considers them, along with peer reviews, in determining categorical and overall ratings for performance.

For the period Oct. 1, 1998 to Sept. 30, 1999, Berkeley Lab earned a grade of 90.9. An "outstanding" rating (90-100) is defined as work that "significantly exceeds the standard of performance, achieves noteworthy results, and accomplishes very difficult tasks in a timely manner."

"This is really a tribute to the hard work and dedication contributed by every member of the Berkeley Lab workforce," Shank said. "It speaks to the care and creativity applied to every endeavor, from plant maintenance to safety management to support services. Outstanding science depends upon a network of talented individuals who together create the optimum environment for achievement. We have that here at Berkeley Lab."

Open House 2000 Around the Corner

Saturday, May 6

You have probably seen these brightly colored posters popping up on windows and bulletin boards all around the Hill. It's official: Berkeley Lab is preparing for this year's Open House and Science Festival, which is rapidly approaching.

On May 6, from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., approximately 5,000 visitors are expected to make their way to the Lab to participate in educational activities, hands-on science demonstrations, a job fair, food, music, and more.

Right now hundreds of people are working behind the scenes to make this year's event a smashing success, but volunteers are still needed to serve as guides and to help out in the various activities of the day. If you would like to lend a hand, contact Sherie Reineman at X5183.

A full schedule of Open House events and activities will be published in the April 7 issue of Currents.

Washington Report

Albright Tells AAAS State Department Needs Science-Ed

In an address at this year's Annual Meeting of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), held in Washington, D.C. on Feb. 17-22, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright made scientific literacy at the State Department one of her major goals. She promised a policy statement on science, to appear this month, and the appointment of a senior science adviser to the secretary, an action that was mandated this past fall by Congress.

"The State Department's scientific capabilities have not always been as substantial as they should be," Albright told AAAS. Her speech was in response to a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report issued last October that laid out a 12-step plan for improving the State Department's scientific and technical expertise. The NAS report was a response to criticisms about the dwindling number of scientifically trained personnel serving in embassies and headquarters.

Albright said she hoped to have a new science adviser on board by April and to release a plan that will look beyond the end of the Clinton Administration.

Canterbury Tales Mystery Solved?

One of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales -- The Franklin's Tale -- tells the story about a young squire in love with a beautiful woman who lives in a castle on the rocky coast of Brittany, France.

The young man hires a magician to make the menacing offshore rocks disappear. For a hefty price, the magician performs an elaborate astronomical calculation and predicts that the rocks will go away on a particular day in "the cold, frosty season of December." The rocks do disappear and the young squire does win his lady. Fanciful tale by one of England's finest poets -- or true astronomical history?

Both, according to physicists at Southwest Texas State University who, using modern astronomical calculations, discovered a rare configuration of the sun and moon that actually occurred during Chaucer's lifetime. It must have produced exceptionally high ocean tides, the physicists say, similar to those described by Chaucer. Specifically, their calculations show that on Dec. 19, 1340, not only were the sun and moon aligned to produce an eclipse, but each body was very nearly at its least possible distance from the Earth -- a rare combination that has only occurred a handful of other times in recorded history. And it won't happen again until A.D. 3089. By Lynn Yarris

Honoring Black Heritage


Horace Mitchell, vice chancellor of
Business and Administrative Services at
UC Berkeley, was the speaker at a forum
held on Feb. 29 in the Bldg. 50 auditorium
as part of Ber-keley Lab's Black
History Month activities. Mitchell's
talk was entitled "Honoring the
Past and Creating Your Future."
Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt

Berkeley One of Eight Labs to
Conduct Research Into Greenhouse Gases

Sally Benson of Berkeley Lab to Head
geological sequestration project

The U.S. Department of Energy announced that eight DOE laboratories, including Berkeley Lab, will expand their research into the field of capturing and storing greenhouse gases. This is the first of two major project selections expected this year as part of DOE's carbon sequestration program.

"These new projects will bring together the best minds from our national laboratories and the private sector in a joint effort to determine which ideas have the best chance of success," said Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson.

The Department will provide a total of $7.7 million to study innovations in the field with the goal of making new technologies for carbon gas disposal affordable to both industrialized and developing countries.

The announcement follows on the heels of DOE's planned increase in funding for carbon sequestration research from $9.2 million this year to $19.5 million in 2001. In seven of the eight projects, lab researchers will team up with scientists in the private sector, universities or other government agencies.

Berkeley Lab, along with Livermore and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, will cooperate with Chevron, Texaco, Pan Canadian Resources, Shell CO2 Co., BP-Amoco, Statoil, and the Alberta Research Council Consortium in a three-year study of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in formations such as brine reservoirs, depleted oil reservoirs, and coalbeds.

Sally Benson, head of the Lab's Earth Sciences Division, will be the principal investigator for the project, with proposed funding of $2.25 million.

Other labs awarded funding as part of this program are Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

LDRD 2001 Call For Proposals

Director Charles Shank has issued the call for proposals for the FY 2001 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, which provides support for projects in forefront areas of science, and that can enrich Berkeley Lab R&D capabilities and achievements.

Proposals are encouraged that fit in with the Laboratory's strategic directions. Two areas of special emphasis will be strategic projects in computational science and projects which continue to build the scientific productivity at the Advanced Light Source.

Multi-investigator and multi-divisional initiatives which address problems of scale are encouraged. All projects should have a clearly stated problem (DOE mission or addressing a national need), coherent objectives, and a well-considered plan for leadership, organization, and budget.

A call for proposals has been distributed to division directors and business managers. Principal investigators must submit proposals to division directors by April 21. After an internal review and evaluation, division directors will forward the proposals to the Director's Office. Division directors will then present the proposals from their respective divisions to review committees comprised of the Director, deputy directors, associate laboratory director, and other division directors. The Director will make the final decisions.

The complete call, schedule, guidance, and forms are available on the web on Berkeley Lab's home page under the heading Publications and then LDRD (

First Nuclear Security Administration Head

Last week Energy Secretary Bill Richardson announced that President Clinton will nominate General John A. Gordon, currently the deputy director of the Central Intelligence Agency, as under secretary for Nuclear Security and the first director of the recently-formed National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

"With his extensive background and experience in national security matters and proven leadership skills, General Gordon is perfectly suited to serve as the first NNSA administrator," Richardson stated. Gordon's experience includes weapons development, long range planning, stockpile management, and arms control.

The National Nuclear Security Administration formally began operations on March 1. Its responsibilities include the maintenance of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, promotion of nonproliferation efforts, and administration and management of the Navy's nuclear propulsion program. -- Monica Friedlander

Berkeley Lab Currents

Published twice a month by the Public Information Department for the employees and retirees of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Ron Kolb, PID department head.

EDITOR: Monica Friedlander, (510) 495-2248,

STAFF WRITERS: Paul Preuss, 486-6249; Lynn Yarris, 486-5375

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Jon Bashor, X5849; Allan Chen, X4210, Jeffery Kahn, X4019


Public Information Department, Berkeley Lab, MS 65A
One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720
Tel: 510/486-5771 Fax: 510/486-6641

Berkeley Lab is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy.

NERSC Accepts New IBM Supercomputer System

First Step Toward 3 Trillion Calculations Per Second Capability

By Jon Bashor

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Berkeley Lab announced that the first phase of its new IBM RS/6000 SP system has met a demanding set of performance benchmarks and is now ready for full use by researchers across the nation.

As part of the acceptance testing, a select group of computational scientists at national laboratories and universities were given early access to the machine to thoroughly test the entire system. Those researchers noted the high performance and ability to scale problems on the SP, which is providing useful scientific results in such areas as climate modeling, materials science and physics research.

"NERSC's acceptance of the IBM system -- and the fact that DOE-supported scientists are already putting the supercomputer to productive use -- demonstrates the Department of Energy's continuing leadership in computational science," said Energy Secretary Bill Richardson. "Once the full RS/6000 SP machine is installed at NERSC later this year, DOE researchers will have access to the most powerful unclassified computing center on earth."

The first phase of the IBM system, installed last year, has 512 processors for computing, 256 gigabytes of memory and 10 terabytes of disk storage for scientific computing. The system has a peak performance of 410 gigaflops, or 410 billion calculations per second.

Phase II, slated for installation by December, will have 2,048 processors dedicated to large-scale scientific computing and another 384 processors devoted to system tasks. The system will have a peak performance capability of more than 3 teraflops, or 3 trillion calculations per second. The second phase will be installed in Berkeley Lab's new scientific facility now under construction in downtown Oakland.

Said Lab Director Charles Shank, "We are committed to providing NERSC's national user community with the most advanced high-performance computing resources, and this partnership between Berkeley Lab and IBM ensures that the system met the very demanding performance criteria we defined at the outset. Our priority is to ensure that the system will be capable of handling the day-in and day-out large-scale scientific computing needs of scientists across the country."

NERSC serves 2,500 researchers at national labs, universities and industry across the nation who are working on DOE-funded programs such as combustion, climate modeling, fusion energy, materials science and computational biology. NERSC is also home to a Cray T3E-900 supercomputer, three Cray SV1 computers and a Cray J90se machine.

Following are some early results from users who were allowed access to test NERSC's IBM RS/6000 SP as part of the acceptance testing:

NERSC is also working with IBM to improve the assessment and effectiveness of the SP system in a production environment. While the theoretical peak performance of supercomputers can be amazingly fast, that capability does not always represent real-world computing. To ensure that the new NERSC system is well-suited to the workaday world, NERSC and IBM developed an Effective System Performance (ESP) benchmark for the new computer. This set of tests will measure how well the SP delivers scientific work under a realistic workload.

"Although some computing centers describe their system's performance in terms of theoretical peak computing, we look at our systems in terms of how much they can enhance our clients' ability to solve large-scale scientific problems," said Bill Kramer, head of NERSC's High Performance Computing Department and leader of the IBM procurement effort. "That's the real measure of performance in our view."

Director Shank at Computing Sciences All-Hands Meeting

By Jon Bashor

Differing budget proposals in Washington, D.C., calling for both increased and decreased funding for NERSC and ESnet, represent the political process at work and provide a good opportunity for raising the visibility of computational science, Lab Director Charles Shank told Computing Sciences employees during an all-hands meeting last week.

Shank noted that positive recognition of both NERSC and ESnet has been specifically included in the President's proposed budget for FY 2001, and representatives from both political parties have testified in support of increased funding.

Shank also explained to the assembled staff that a bill that passed in the House, which was amended at the last minute to reduce DOE funding, was an authorization bill. The appropriations bills, which are passed by different committees later in the year, are the legislation which actually determines how much money will be spent on specific programs.

Nonetheless, the discussion in Congress provides a welcome opportunity for the Laboratory and the NERSC user community to increase the visibility of the role that computational science and the accompanying network infrastructure, play in the nation's research programs, Lab officials said.

"We really want to make use of this opportunity to demonstrate the importance of our programs to the country," said Bill McCurdy, Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences.

McCurdy said a strong case needs to be made for support of the entire research environment -- both computing centers and computational science research. "DOE's research in computer science and applied mathematics are essential components of the country's computational science research effort," he said.

Shank and McCurdy said they would continue their ongoing efforts to meet with members of Congress, inform them of the research contributions made by computational scientists, and discuss any outstanding issues.

"We would like to see both parties come together to support scientific computing," Shank said. "We're well poised to make a case for NERSC as the most broadly open facility of its kind in the nation -- and to make NERSC an even stronger facility to benefit the country."

NERSC Hosts Scientific Computing Workshop

More than 100 scientific computing researchers from the Bay Area and beyond turned out for the first Bay Area Scientific Computing Day sponsored by NERSC.

The workshop, held Feb. 26 at Berkeley Lab, was an informal gathering to encourage the interaction and collaboration of Bay Area researchers in the field of scientific computing, according to Esmond Ng, leader of NERSC's Scientific Computing Group and organizer of the workshop. Another aim of the workshop was to provide a forum in which recent Ph.D.'s and postdocs could present their work. Four Berkeley Lab researchers --Helen He, Parry Husbands, Doron Levy, and Lenny Oliker -- were among the speakers.

"I think the day was a success by several measures," Ng said. "We expected 50 to 60 people to attend and had almost twice that number. And the talks were all top quality, and the attendees really got into the discussions."

Most of the participants were from the DOE's four Bay Area facilities: Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Researchers from Stanford University, UC Berkeley, UC Davis, the University of San Francisco, San Jose State University and private industry also attended.

"The Scientific Computing Day reintroduced a sense of community in the Bay Area, and also made NERSC one of the centers of such activity," Ng said. "We hope to make this a regular event and Lawrence Livermore has already committed to hosting the workshop next year."

Joan Daisey Was a National Expert in Air Quality

By Allan Chen

Joan Daisey

Joan Daisey, a senior staff scientist in the Environmental Energy Technologies (EET) Division and one of the nation's leading experts on indoor air quality, passed away on Feb. 29 at Alta Bates Hospital in Berkeley after a long illness. She was 58.

A physical chemist by training, Daisey was at the Laboratory for 14 years and headed the Division's Indoor Environment Department, with a 60-person staff and a budget of more than $6 million a year. She was also chair of the Science Advisory Board for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an influential national board that helps guide the direction of EPA research.

Said Mark Levine, division director of EET, "Joan's contributions as an outstanding researcher within the Department, as an advocate for linking indoor and outdoor air quality research, and as a national leader on environmental research were magnificent. Equally, we will miss her joy in doing research, her impatience with impediments to progress, her sense of humor, and her acceptance of her co-workers as friends and part of her extended family."

"Joan has had an enormous impact here, and we will miss her very much," said Lab Director Charles Shank.

Daisey's more than 100 publications mostly addressed human exposure to organic pollutants and particles in indoor and outdoor air. Her work in this field included studies of the physical and chemical nature, sources, transport, and fate of pollutants, as well as exposure assessment and exposure pathways.

Born in New York City, Daisey received her B.A. in chemistry from Georgian Court College in New Jersey in 1962 and her Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Seton Hall University in 1970. While a researcher at New York University Medical Center's Department of Environmental Medicine (1975-1986), Daisey was a principal investigator in numerous multi-institutional field projects, including the Airborne Toxic Elements and Organic Substances Study.

As a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab, she was a principal investigator for many research projects on environmental tobacco smoke, ventilation, infiltration and indoor air quality, the health effects of volatile organic compounds and particles, and on the soil-to-gas transport of volatile organic compounds into buildings as an exposure pathway.

She had a strong interest in the continuum between indoor and outdoor air quality and helped to build a bridge between the respective research communities.

Daisey took a lively interest in guiding the development of new areas of research. She was active in the public arena, where she applied her scientific expertise and knowledge of toxic chemicals to the problem of reducing their exposures to human beings.

In 1987 and 1988 Daisey worked on the peer review committees that developed emergency plans for the sampling and analysis of data from the Love Canal area of New York State.

As a member of the EPA's Science Advisory Board since 1987 (and its chair since 1998), she participated in the Human Exposure and Health Subcommittee of the Advisory Board's Integrated Risk Project. She was very active in scientific societies including service as President of the International Society of Exposure Analyses in 1995 and 1996. (She was part of the group that founded the Society.)

Daisey was also a member of the Department of Energy's Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group.

"She will be remembered as an outstanding, creative, and energetic scientist with a positive outlook and a sense of humor," said fellow scientist Bill Fisk. "She was dedicated to the goal of `good science,' a standard she set for the research activities of the department she led.

"Joan was unselfish and treated her colleagues with warmth and respect. She particularly enjoyed working with promising young scientists and guided several students in research for their Ph.D. dissertations."

Daisey, a resident of Walnut Creek, is survived by her husband of 36 years, Tom, son Christian, two sisters, a brother, and her mother. A service was held at St. John Vianney Church in Walnut Creek on March 3.

Daisey had requested that memorial donations be sent to the American Cancer Society.

Nuclear Physicist Charles Kim Dies in Traffic Accident

By Jeffery Kahn

Charles Kim

Charles Hongchul Kim, an accelerator physicist with the Center for Beam Physics, died on Feb. 27 from injuries he sufffered during a mid-February auto accident. Kim, who was 57, had been enroute to San Francisco International Airport and a trip to Fermilab when he was involved in the accident.

Kim was a longtime scientist here, first joining the Laboratory in 1978.

Swapan Chattopadhyay, head of the Center for Beam Physics, said Kim made significant contributions to a succession of programs at the Lab. Chattopadhyay was among those who eulogized Kim at a March 2 memorial service, joining colleagues in describing Kim as a devout family man and man of resolute character and moral strength.

Said Chattopadhyay, "Early in Charles' career, when he was a doctoral student at UCLA as a Hertz Fellow in Physics, he made his mark in plasma physics with a pioneering article on `Cavitons in Plasmas' -- a singular article that still continues to enrich our field. Ever since he joined our Laboratory, Charles has made progressive contributions to the fields of heavy ion fusion, synchrotron radiation sources and most recently in the exciting new field of muon colliders."

Kim was born in Kyungbook, Andong, South Korea. After receiving an undergraduate degree in physics from Seoul National University and a Ph.D. in physics from UCLA, he joined TRW in Redondo Beach, California, working as a fusion plasma physicist on an inertial confinement fusion program.

In 1978, two years after Berkeley Lab started its own heavy ion fusion program, Kim joined the heavy ion fusion group then headed by Dennis Keefe. In 1987 he joined AFRD's Exploratory Studies Group, which was charged with doing the physics-related design and support towards the construction and commissioning of the Advanced Light Source -- and also with providing support for the Superconducting Super Collider.

When the ALS was commissioned in 1992, Kim joined the accelerator physics group at the ALS, led by Alan Jackson.

Last year, he joined the Center for Beam Physics, performing computer simulations toward the development of a proposed Neutrino Factory, based on muon storage rings.

Recalling Kim as a team player of exceptional humility, Chattopadhyay said, "Our community is diminished significantly today by the loss of one outstanding individual."

Kim lived in Lafayette with his wife Cynthia, his daughters Jean and Vicky, and his son Christopher. The funeral was held on March 3.

Currents Online

The full text and photographs of each edition of Currents are published online at (or look for a link to Currents on the Lab's home page under the heading "Publications").

The site allows users to do searches of past articles going back to 1994.

Bulletin Board

General Habiger Addresses Lab Employees

General Eugene E. Habiger, the Department of Energy's director of Security and Emergency Operations, held an all-hands meeting with employees yesterday during his visit at Berkeley Lab for briefings and tours of Lab facilities.

General Habiger oversees all of the DOE's security functions, including safeguards and security policy, cyber-security, critical infrastructure protection, foreign visits and assignments, and emergency operations. Formerly he was Commander in Chief of the United States Strategic Command, responsible for all U.S. Air Force and Navy strategic nuclear forces supporting the national security objective of strategic deterrence.

A report on General Habiger's visit to Berkeley Lab will be published in the March 24 issue of Currents.

Positions Open for Science Camp

Berkeley Lab's Science Exploration Camp (SEC) is seeking applicants for a number of positions for its Summer 2000 sessions, including camp director, assistant director, counselors, and volunteers.

Also, a key position for an administrator (six-months, part time-basis) has just opened recently. Qualified candidates are urged to apply as soon as possible by calling X6566 or sending e-mail to Additional information about the camp and the positions open is available on the camp website at

SEC runs six one-week camp sessions (July 24 - Sept. 1) for approximately 30 children of Berkeley Lab and UC employees. The program combines science and recreational activities.

Surplus Chemicals Available for Free

Berkeley Lab's surplus chemical exchange program offers unused chemicals to Lab employees. Technicians from the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility will deliver the materials free of charge upon request within one or two days (weekends excluded). All chemical containers are sealed and have never been opened. They include:

A detailed list of currently available chemicals can be found on the Waste Minimization website at

For more information about the program or to request surplus chemicals, contact Shelley Worsham at X6123,

New TEID Website Now Online

The Lab's Technical and Electronic Information Department (TEID) has revamped its website in order to provide customers with more complete information about its services, a more user-friendly navigation system, and new ways to make it easier for customers to communicate with TEID.

The new site, online at, was also designed to fit better with the Lab's main website look and present a more unified approach to links within TEID and to other Lab sites.

The new site includes information for customers about file formats, preparation of electronic data, rates and sample prices for typical jobs, contact information, and feedback forms. The website will continue to be upgraded over the next few weeks.

Employees interested in photography and imaging services may look up TEID's extensive photo gallery, which is accessible from the main TEID site.

Oakland A's Family Day

The Employees' Activities Association is sponsoring a family day event around one of the Bay Bridge Series games -- Oakland A's vs the San Francisco Giants -- at the Oakland Coliseum on Sunday, June 4. Seats are at field level and tickets through the EAA are $10, payable to UC Regents. The Lab group will use the tail gate area for a barbeque or potluck. The event is open to Lab employees and their families.

Tickets will be available at the cafeteria entrance on Tuesdays from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. For more information contact Lisa Cordova at X5521.

Hall of Science Honors Women in Science

UC Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science celebrates Women in History Month in March with a number of events, including:

For more information look up the LHS website at or call 642-5132.

Science for Support Staff

Materials theory will be the focus of the next lecture in the "Science for Support Staff" series, to be held next Monday, March 13, at 11:00 a.m. in Bldg. 66, Room 316.

Daryl Chrzan, leader of the High Performance Metals Group in the Materials Sciences Division will give a talk entitled "It's not the speed that kills, it's the yield strength: An adrenaline junkie's perspective on materials theory." All employees are invited.

ACS Chemical Landmark Dedication to be Held Tomorrow

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is dedicating four Berkeley Lab sites (Bldgs. 5, 70, 71, and 88) as National Historic Chemical Landmarks with a ceremony to be held tomorrow, March 11, at 3:00 p.m. in the Bldg. 50 auditorium.

The dedication commemorates the history of transuranium element discovery at Berkeley Lab. Prior to the site dedication, the ACS will hold a workshop on the Periodic Table with featured speaker Eric Norman.

Currents Online

The full text and color photographs of Currents are published online at The site also allows users to do searches of past articles going back to 1994.

Lab Life

A son, Maxim Peter Joseph, was born on Feb. 29 to Michael Murphy of Life Sciences and his wife, Lidia. Their third child and first son, Max weighed in at seven pounds. Will the leap-year baby boy age at only one-fourth the normal rate? Something for Life Sciences researchers to ponder...Congratulations to the lucky parents.

Calendar of Events

March 2000

General Interest


3:00 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium


9:00 a.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium


"The Way Home: Stories of Identity, Opression and Resistance" 12:00 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium


12:00 p.m., Bldg. 51 ground floor


"The Way Home: Stories of Identity, Opression and Resistance" 12:00 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium


12:00 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium

Items for the calendars may be e-mailed to, faxed to X6641, or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the March 24 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, March 20.

Seminars & Lectures


"Genetic Control of the Development and Evolution of Vertebrate Skeletal Structures" will be presented by David M. Kingsley of Stanford.
4:00 p.m., Bldg. 84-318
Refreshments precede seminar


"The 28 Parameters of the Standard Model: Clues to What Lies Ahead" will be presented by Ann Nelson of the University of Washington.
4:00 p.m., 50A-5132
Refreshments at 3:40 p.m.


"Direct Experiments on the Deep Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2 Using ROV Technology" will be preseneted by Peter Brewer of the Monterey Bay Acquarium Research Institute.
11:00 a.m., Bldg. 90-2063


"Use of Suppression Subtractive Hybridization as a Tool for Microbial Genome Comparisons" will be presented by Gary Andersen of Livermore.
12:00 p.m., 338 Koshland Hall
UC Berkeley


"Proton Radiography" will be presented by John McClelland of Los Alamos National Lab.
11 a.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium
Refreshments precede seminar.


"Rare B Meson Decays with eta' or eta Mesons: eta' K Puzzle" will be presented by Andrew Gritsan of the University of Colorado.
4:00 p.m., 50A-5132
Refreshments at 3:40 p.m.


"Genome Function in the Mouse by Combining Physical Mapping/Sequencing with Phenotype-based Mutagenesis Screens" will be presented by Maja Bucan of the University of Pennsylvania.
4:00 p.m., Bldg. 84-318
Refreshments precede seminar



"SNPping in the Human Genome: Lessons Learned" will be presented by Deborah Nickerson of the University of Washington.
2:00 p.m., Bldg. 84-318
Refreshments precede seminar.

Cancer and Complexity Workshop

Berkeley Lab scientists are hosting a day-long workshop on "Cancer and Complexity" on March 31 at the Bancroft Hotel in Berkeley.

Sponsored by the California Breast Cancer Research Program, the workshop will discuss interdisciplinary research strategies that integrate tissue-like cancer models and diverse data, such as sequence informatics, chip technology and digital image analysis to understand how tissues become cancers. Scientists with an interest in cancer research, computational sciences and bioinformatics are invited to attend.


Admission is free but registration is required and is limited to 200 participants.

Further details and registration information are available on the workshop website at

AIM Computer Classes: March-April

AIM, a Walnut Creek-based computer software training firm, provides onsite PC computer courses to Lab employees.

Classes are held in Bldg. 51L from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

For more information on AIM training or registration procedure, look up the class website at, or contact Heather Pinto at X4181.

Flea Market


`97 DODGE Neon 4-cyl, auto, cruise, ac, tilt, new brakes, 83,500 mi, well maint, all records, $7,300, can been seen at DVC parking lot on weekends,, Don, (925) 930-9957

`96 SATURN SW2 wagon, 54K, loaded, exc cond, $11,000/bo, Robert, X2278, (707) 446-7933

`95 MERCURY Tracer Sedan, 4 dr, red/pink, 1.9L, 63K, auto, ac, pwr steer, am/fm/cass, dual air bags, no accidents, exc cond, $5,500, Hiromi, X4417, 233-1537

`94 CHEVY S10 Truck, teal w/ shell, bedliner, 40K, am/fm/cass, exc cond, $6,500, Cameron, 663-3438

`92 OLDSMOBILE Bravada (SUV), fully loaded, all wheel drive, 145K, very clean, $6,800/bo, Barbara, X7840, (925) 939-7754 (aft 4:30 pm)

`92 TOYOTA 4x4, 22RE, 5 spd, new tires, ctr lines, bedliner, 165K, many new parts, looks gd, runs exc, bo, (925) 313-9037

`91 FORD Econoline 150, conversion van, 63K, $9,950, exc cond, new tires, Glenn, (925) 833-7199, X4667

`91 HONDA Accord LX, 4dr, blk, at, ac, ps, pw, stereo, fully loaded, carphone, exc cond, 145K, $6,950/bo, Mohammed, 389-7694 (pager, anytime)

`91 MITSUBISHI Galant LS, 98K, 4 dr silver, at, ac, pwr wndw/lock, cc, am/fm, 1 owner, $3,500, Margie, X5167

`90 MERCURY Sable LS sedan, 4 dr, V6 3.8L, auto, cruise, ac, am/fm/cass, pwr steer/win/door/seat, tilt wheel, prem sound, leather, sunrf, 78K, $4,100, Jianbo, X6665, 845-3863 (eve)

`89 LINCOLN MARK VII LSC, 85K, garaged, nonsmoker, silver/ blue, sun/moon roof, new tires, brakes, showroom cond, leather seats, alloy wheels, premium sound, all power, factory manuals, well maint, $5,200 Rich, X5371, (510) 620-0448 (eve)

`87 CIVIC WAGON, 149K, 5 spd, runs well, new tires, cass, $1,900, Debbie, X4195, (650) 498-0540

`87 PLYMOUTH Grand Voyager LE mini-van, 7 psgr, 119K, V6, auto, ac, pwr steer/wndws/locks/ seat, tilt wheel, cruise, roof rack, am/fm/cass, orig owner, no accidents, all maint records, gd cond, $2,950 Ron, 486-4410

`84 SUBARU DL 4 dr wagon, 145K , man trans, radio/tape deck, runs well, $1,000/bo, Lynn, X6519, 524-2966 (eve)

`83 TOYOTA Corolla Wagon, at, ac, am/fm/cass, new tires, runs well, great commute car, $1,100/bo, Rick, X5882, (925) 687-0859 (eve)

`83 CHEVY Malibu sedan, 6 cyl, 54K, orig owner, at, pwr brakes/steer, am/fm/cass, cruise, 4 dr, brakes relined, gd cond, must sell, $1,495/bo, Howard, 524-5696

`69 VW BEETLE, Porche (?) engine, auto trans in exc cond, body pan has serious rust, 93K, $1,500/bo, Guy, X4703, 482-1777

`68 Chevy Nova, straight-6 engine, at, runs, exc body cond, all orig, $1,800/bo, Tim, (925) 687-0405

Housing Available

BERKELEY, 1 bdrm apt, walk dist to dwntwn, BART/transp to UC/Lab, avail 4/1- 5/31, $850/mo, plus util, Alain, X7629, 848-8285

BERKELEY, 1 bdrm apt, furn, pleasant, quiet, close to UC/Lab/transp, avail to UC/Lab visitors by week or month, Geoffrey, Denise, 848-1830

EL CERRITO, 3 bdrm/2 bath house, furn, 20 min from Lab, avail 6/1 - 8/31, $1,300/mo incl util, Art, 237-4654

ELMWOOD, share elegant 11-rm house w/ 2 men, 1 woman, nonsm prof, mstr bdrm w/ frplc, huge closet, piano, dog, laundry, sauna, hrdwd floors, exc loc, $755/mo + dep, shared exp, Tony, 841-4480

N. BERKELEY, Thousand Oaks, furn bdrm w/ priv entr/kitchen/ bath in quiet, owner-occupied home, near public transit, non-smoker, $515/mo incl util, J. Klems, 528-9522

SAN FRANCISCO, furn, 2 bdrm condo w/ parking, 2 blks from 16th St BART, no pets, avail for 12 mos starting 9/1, $1,800/mo, Brian, X7371

S. WALNUT CREEK/Alamo Border, unfurn/furn rm in beautiful furn 3 bdrm home w/ working female, dog, lge fenced backyard, kitchen, priv bath, garage, cable/phone hookup in bdrm, washer/dryer, near pub trans, quiet/clean/non-smoker, util incl, $700/mo, Sheryl, X5126

PLEASANT HILL, Walnut Creek/ Lafayette border, nicely furn home, formal dining rm, lge fam rm, lge deck, all amen, exc loc, access to freeways, BART, mid-May to mid-June, 4-6 weeks, $600/wk, nonsmoker, Natalie, (925) 934-0759, Werner, (925) 937-6433

N. OAKLAND, room for rent in 3 bdrm house, $600/mo, quiet street, hrdwd flrs, laundry, no pets/smoking, X2420

Housing Wanted

LAB RESEARCHER and family, need temp housing while remodeling, 4/1-10, 11, prefer house in Albany, Berkeley, El Cerrito, X5896, 524-8897

NEW EMPLOYEE seeks 1-2 bdrm house/townhouse/condo, single, quiet, clean, resp nonsmoker, small caged bird, Caryl, X4980, (408) 354-3310

VISITING PROFESSOR, family, seek sabbatical housing for 1 year starting this summer, pref furn, svoboda@nuclear8.

VISITING PROFESSOR on sabbatical seeks housing, 2 bdrms, approx 6/25-8/25, pref furn,
Jingly, (415) 476-8517


CLOSET CABINET, tall/narrow, lots of shelves, 72"x12"x12", new, white, $40/bo (paid $75), 601-5757

CONTEMPORARY SOFA, soft fabric/earth colors, Southwestern or Native American infl, approx 7-ft wide, exc cond, $400/bo, Arline, Warren, 524-4193

COOKBOOKS, Gourmet Magazine's 1963 "Menu", hardbound, like new, $10; Lee Bailey's "Good Parties" hardbound, $5, Kathy, X4931

ELECTRONIC PIANO, Yamaha CLP-123 spinet-style piano with MIDI connections, scarcely played, incl bench, $1,300, Loretta, Bill, 420-6979

FUTON SOFA, black frame, $75; desk seat $15, 526-5495, (eve)

MACINTOSH Performa 6116, upgraded to G3, 225 MHz, 72MB RAM, 4.7GB HD, zip drive, keybrd +2 mice, more, all for $450, Tim, (925)-687-0405

MICROSOFT Visual Basic Prof Edition (ver 4) software, complete doc, $25; Motorola Select 2000 digital phone w/access, Susan, X6507

MONITOR, Sony multiscan, 15 in, matching glare guard, like new, $150/bo; Gateway Pentium, 75Mhz 24MB 2GB, $70/bo, X2427

MOVING SALE, Sat, 3-18, 11-4: sewing machines (2), screen door, walnut dining rm set for 6, full sz futon, 2 burg rockers, outdoor loveseat w/ 3 chairs, lawn mower, BBQ pit, more, Louise, 653-6964, 235-2136

REDECORATING SALE, like new-liv rm furn, loveseat in mauve/pale blue, $225; mauve chair/ottoman, $250; coffee/end table, ash wood/glass, $75, all for $50; Graber 2" white wooden blinds, appr. 65"x58" (1) & 25.5x58" (2), $100 for all 3, will also sell sep, Sara, 526-5347,
Harvard, X5742

ROLLTOP DESK, danish style, space for computer, 3 large drawers, shelves, chair, $50/bo, Mrs. Birkenfeld, 524-0075

SNOW SKIS, exc cond, Olin's, Rossignal, Head, Dynamic, Atomic, sizes 185 cm to 205 cm, $50 to $200, X6598, (925) 689-7213

SOLID OAK DESK, 33"x 60", dark fin, gd cond, 6 drwrs incl 1 file drwr, $100, Terry, 558-8388, X4803, Mon only

STEREO COMPONENTS, approx 20-yr-old, Sony tuner/amplifier, am/fm, exc bass/treble/balance controls, Sharp cassette deck, 2 small speakers, bo, Monica, X2248

STEREO RECEIVER, Optimus, exc cond except phono jack does not work, $90/bo, Nellie, X4555

SUPERPHON Revelation Plus $250; MARANTZ CD17 mkII $750; PIONEER DV525, $175; Weslo Cardioglide $60, Dave, X4506

TREK 1000 aluminum road bike, 18", Look pedals, gd cond, $150/bo, Kathy, X4385


CARPOOLERS for 3-person carpool from Petaluma to LBNL needs 1 extra rider, prefer Lab employee, pickup in Petaluma, 7:00-3:30, M-F, depart Petaluma, 5:45 am, Steve, X4362

RECORDER PLAYERS interested in forming a lunchtime get-together, Carol, X5234

VAN POOL from SF, Haight/Noe Valley/Castro to UCB/LBNL, needs extra rider, 8 am and 5 pm, David, X6013


PARIS, near Eiffel Tower, elegant furn 2 bdrm apt avail per week/ mo anytime from 4/1 to 4/15 or after 7/1, col picts avail, 848-1830


GOOD HOMES wanted for adult kitties who need to be relocated from Bldg. 934, Gerri, X4558

TENT TRAILER, Starcraft, looks gd, needs some work, Eloy, X6968, 278-7484

Flea Market Policy

Ads are accepted only from LBNL employees, retirees, and onsite DOE personnel. Only items of your own personal property may be offered for sale.

Submissions must include name, affiliation, extension, and home phone number.

Ads must be submitted in writing only -- via e-mail (, fax (X6641), or delivered/ mailed to Bldg. 65B. Ads run one week only unless resubmitted in writing, and are repeated only as space permits.

The deadline for the March 24 issue is Thursday, March. 16.