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Berkeley Lab Currents

June 26, 1998


Chemla to Head ALS

By Lynn Yarris

Daniel Chemla, director of the Materials Sciences Division and a physicist recognized as one of the world's foremost authorities on the optical and electronic properties of materials, has been named to take on additional duties as director of the Advanced Light Source. Effective July 1, he will replace Brian Kincaid, who resigned the ALS directorship to pursue full-time scientific research.

In a Lab-wide announcement on June 15, Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank said that Kincaid was stepping down after six years at the ALS helm. In addition to naming Chemla to head the ALS division, Shank said that Neville Smith, the ALS scientific director, will now serve as deputy for the ALS scientific program, and Ben Feinberg will become the deputy for ALS operations.

"Together this team will provide the leadership necessary for the ALS going into the future," Shank said. "This is a critically important time in the history of the ALS, and all of us at the Laboratory have much to do to assure its continuing vitality, both scientifically and technologically."

Chemla has been the MSD director since 1991 when the old Materials and Chemical Sciences Division was reorganized into two separate divisions: MSD and the Chemical Sciences Division. He came to Berkeley Lab from AT&T Bell Laboratories where he had been a colleague of Shank's.

"I accepted this new job because I really care for the ALS and believe that it is an important asset for the Laboratory," said Chemla, adding that Shank has specifically charged him with keeping ALS and MSD as two separate divisions.

"There is some overlap of interests between the two divisions and there needs to be more synergy between them," he said. "My job is to harmonize these mutual research interests, not to merge the two divisions."

Chemla expects to direct both divisions for a few years, after which he intends to continue to direct MSD and to resume his teaching duties as a UC Berkeley physics professor. While heading the two divisions at Berkeley Lab, Chemla has been excused from his teaching duties on campus. He does, however, plan to continue his own vigorous research program.

The 57-year-old Chemla was a French national, born in Tunisia, who is now a U.S. citizen. He obtained his degrees, including his Ph.D. in non-linear optics, at the University of Paris. Although he began his studies as an elementary particle physicist, he switched to investigations into the interaction of laser radiation with matter. His focus became the study of "quantum size effects" on ultra-small material structures--solids so small their physical properties become size-dependent.

"My personal field of research is non-linear optical spectroscopy. It involves observing the changes of optical properties of condensed matter brought about when it interacts with intense and ultrashort laser radiation," Chemla says.

In discussing his new duties at the ALS, Chemla paid tribute to former ALS director Kincaid.

"Brian did a terrific job as the ALS director and he has done a first-class job with helping me in this transition," Chemla said. Shank, too, had high praise for Kincaid. "We owe a great debt of gratitude to Brian, whose passionate commitment has always been to make the ALS a world-class facility."

Photo: Daniel Chemla (XBD9712-04568)


UN Ambassador Richardson Nominated for Energy Post

By Lynn Yarris

William Blaine Richardson, a 50-year-old Hispanic American who currently serves as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and as a member of the President's Cabinet and the National Security Council, has been nominated by President Clinton to be the next Secretary of Energy. The nomination must now be approved by the Senate.

The naming of Richardson to succeed Federico Peña--who in April announced his intentions to step down effective June 30--has been expected for several weeks. As a close friend of the President and a former eight-term Congressman of New Mexico, Richardson is widely seen as having the potential to raise DOE's profile both at the White House and on Capitol Hill.

In announcing Richardson's nomination last Thursday, the President said: "If there's one word that comes to mind when I think of Bill Richardson, it really is energy. For 14 years representing New Mexico, an energy-rich state that is home to two of our national Department of Energy labs, and his long service as an active member of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, he has gotten extensive, first-hand experience in issues ranging from deregulating the oil and gas industries, to promoting alternative sources of energy, to ensuring that energy development meets tough standards of environmental safety."

Richardson praised Clinton as "the most prolific appointer of Latinos of any president." He also said he looked forward to leading DOE as it carries out its diverse missions, including energy policy and nuclear weapons.

"The department must continue its leadership on energy issues because a healthy energy sector is a critical element of a vibrant and growing U.S. economy," Richardson said. "The department's ability to maintain a safe and reliable nuclear stockpile will support your efforts, Mr. President, to secure a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a treaty made all that more important by recent events."

Richardson also listed DOE's environmental cleanup efforts as a personal priority and said the national labs must play a critical role in this effort.

"The Department of Energy's many talented and dedicated scientists will support these [cleanup] efforts, especially in the area of technological advancement so important to the nation's success in the 21st Century," he said.

Richardson was born on Nov.15, 1947 in Pasadena, California. He earned a B.A. from Tufts University and an M.A. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. He was first elected to the House of Represen-tatives as a Democrat in 1982, and was reelected seven times. At one time he held one of the highest ranking posts in the House democratic leadership, serving as Chief Deputy Whip. He and his wife Barbara reside in New York City.

As the U.S. ambassador to the U.N., Richardson has earned a reputation for creative derring-do. The New York Times recently described him as an "Indiana Jones-style diplomatic trouble-shooter." His most celebrated achievement was negotiating the release of three Westerners, including an American pilot, from Sudanese rebels in exchange for food, jeeps and radios. He also won acclaim for persuading the North Korean government to release an American who had illegally entered that country to convert its citizens to Christianity.

In his nomination speech, President Clinton took the opportunity to push for his global warming initiatives. He reiterated the valuable role he foresees for DOE and the national labs.

"With Congress' support, Bill Richard-son will do his part now to secure our energy future at a time when it is inextricably bound up with our obligation as Americans to do our part to deal with the problem of climate change, and our obligations as Americans to build a secure future for our country that allows economic growth and protection of the planet," Clinton said. "I believe that this challenge will require the greatest energy from our national labs, from our scientists and technology, from an Energy Department that can work clearly with the private sector on what plainly will be one of America's most important priorities for years and years to come."

Photo:William Blaine Richardson


Lab Wins Lawsuit Over Hazardous Waste Facility

By Ron Kolb

An Alameda County Superior Court Judge has denied an environmental activist coalition's legal challenge to the Lab's proposed changes at its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility.

In his June 18 decision, Judge Henry Needham ruled that Berkeley Lab's analysis and environmental reviews and conclusions made prior to making operational changes to the facility are "supported by substantial evidence in light of the whole record."

Judge Needham denied the petition for Writ of Mandate, filed last June, in which the Group to Eliminate Toxics charged that an additional Environ-mental Impact Report (EIR) was required before the University of California approved the facility changes. The Laboratory completed an EIR on Hazardous Waste Handling Facility operations in 1990. It argued successfully that this and other reviews conducted within the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) were more than adequate to satisfy the state's legal requirements.

Laboratory Director Charles V. Shank called the decision a vindication of Berkeley Lab's vigilant oversight of health and safety programs and its careful environmental stewardship.

"We are pleased that Judge Needham acknowledged the thoroughness of our process," Shank said. "At the same time, we think it is unfortunate that city tax funds were expended in order to challenge the Laboratory's credibility."

He expressed "disappointment" in the fact that the cities of Berkeley ($25,000) as well as Oakland ($10,000) supported the plaintiffs' lawsuit. "I just wish the City Councils had considered all the facts in this case before investing their scarce resources this way," Shank said. "And I hope this will open the door to more effective communications between the communities and our Laboratory."

Judge Needham heard 90 minutes of testimony from both sides on June 9. He said in his brief two-paragraph ruling that he had "reviewed the record of the respondent's proceedings in this matter, the briefs submitted by counsel, and the arguments of counsel."

Berkeley Lab will now complete a permit modification request process with state regulators, which will allow the changes to be made.

The minor modifications planned at the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility will allow the Lab to continue its handling and storage of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes in an environmentally safe manner.

Most of the modifications accommodate increased capacity for on-site storage of mixed waste until off-site storage, treatment and disposal facilities can receive it.

"We are proud of the review process we conducted," said Nancy Shepard, environmental attorney for Berkeley Lab. "We think the Lab has done much more than CEQA requires. We conducted a thorough analysis that included multiple risk assessment scenarios. We offered a longer public comment period than was required, and we considered all comments made to us. We also responded in writing to all comments, which was not required by law."

The Lab was assisted in its defense by Landels, Ripley and Diamond of San Francisco, with lead attorney Michael Zischke and attorney Ted Stevens.

Zischke spent most of his time at Judge Needham's hearing rejecting the charges of the plaintiffs' attorney, Michael Freund. In his remarks, Freund accused the Laboratory of failing to include certain facts in the Initial Study for the waste handling facility changes. He also said the Lab did not adequately assess the environmental impacts of the proposed project changes.

Zischke pointed out that an additional EIR was not required because the facility's changes would not create any new or substantially more significant impacts compared to prior CEQA reviews. Among the reviews were the 1990 EIR on the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, a 1992 Supplemental EIR, and two Initial Studies. The Lab's CEQA determination, a "subsequent mitigated negative declaration," was based on those reviews and on an additional Initial Study.

"The Lab made a very reasoned decision after a great deal of analysis," Zischke said. "It has a thorough and abundant record which met the `substantial evidence' test for this case."

The attorney for the Group to Eliminate Toxics also spent considerable time addressing the Lab's tritium emissions and their alleged risks--an issue Zischke called a "red herring." He reminded the court that tritium air emissions represent about one percent of the regulatory standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency.


Fighting Pollution: ALS Synchrotron Studies Unravel Molecular Environmental Interactions

By Paul Preuss

At the Workshop on Scientific Directions at the Advanced Light Source held at Berkeley Lab last March, one of the eight working-group sessions was devoted to the challenging new field of molecular environmental science.

"One of the Department of Energy's principal charges is to clean up its legacy wastes, plus other contamination of all kinds, including heavy metals, radioactive substances, and chlorinated hydrocarbons," says David Shuh of the Lab's Chemical Sciences Division. Shuh and Geraldine Lamble of the Earth Sciences Division acted as facilitators of the molecular environmental science (MES) working group at the ALS workshop, which was chaired by Gordon Brown, Jr. of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and Stanford University.

"To do this job effectively, we have to understand the fundamental interactions of contaminants with their environments at the molecular level, as well as with the macroscopic environment," Shuh says, "which means addressing chemical, physical, biological, geochemical, and other kinds of problems. It's a very complex, interdisciplinary scientific field. Synchrotron radiation techniques are essential to gain an understanding of the basic science."

MES aims to identify the chemical and physical forms of contaminants, known as their speciation, and to understand the way different species in contaminated materials react in the soil and water table. These complex molecular-scale biological and chemical processes affect the stability of contaminant species, their mobility, their toxicity, and their transformations into different species.

Researchers contend with a number of interesting experimental complications. Many environmental processes take place at the surfaces of natural solids and involve aqueous solutions. A sample is often contaminated by several different species, and the con-taminants may be present in such forms or low concentrations that imaging methods like nuclear magnetic resonance are not useful. Furthermore, the reactions are often between different phases--liquid and gas, liquid and solid, or solid and gas. These complex interactions are made even more difficult because of the involvement of living things. All these intricacies make high intensity, tunable synchrotron light an indispensable research tool.

One of the most useful probes of molecular species and their reactions is x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, or XAFS. A synchrotron light source like the ALS can produce photon beams with the brightness and high flux necessary for XAFS to detect dilute levels of metal-ion contaminants in solution or at surfaces by displaying their characteristic individual spectra.

As an example, Stanford's Gordon Brown, Jr. cites a study that used very short-wavelength XAFS to show why wastes from a uranium processing plant in Ohio were not being adequately remediated. The traditional clean-up method was to wash the soil with a carbonate solution, but the synchrotron study revealed that uranium (VI) solid, a species not readily soluble in the carbonate solution, remained in the soil as uranyl phosphate after washing. An alternate method of remediation had to be used.

Shuh, whose own research focuses on actinide chemistry, notes that problematic storage tanks at Hanford, Wash., where waste from production of weapons-grade plutonium has been stored for decades, contain numerous actinide species. "If you want to sequester the actinides from other wastes, for example, you need to understand complex actinide chemistry, things that people couldn't get at directly before the advent of synchrotron studies," he says.

Some schemes for permanent storage of radioactive waste contemplate encapsulating them in cement or glass, such as borosilicate glass. "Although glass has only short-range order, it forms networks," says Shuh. "Other elements compete with some boron species and can interfere with network formation in borosilicates, which could affect the leaching of stored wastes. The synchrotron radiation produced by the ALS is ideal for studying the chemical properties of the light-element species in glass."

Other metal-ion contaminants are often found in soil and groundwater, and synchrotron studies have revealed surprising facts about their environmental interactions. X-ray microscopy done by Brian Tonner, now of the University of Central Florida, working at an ALS beamline built and operated by the Center for X-Ray Optics, has yielded micrographs of bacteria that have absorbed manganese from water; the ingested manganese is oxidized to form manganite, an insoluble mineral. Bacteria that can oxidize or reduce metal ions and minerals offer many opportunities for waste clean-up.

Plants can also be active in transforming contaminant species, especially at the "root zone," where most uptake of chemicals occurs. Geraldine Lamble has studied fungi from Norwegian forest soils contaminated by metals from refineries in the former Soviet Union. Using extended XAFS at the ALS, Lamble established the role of the species zinc oxalate in the uptake, retention, and conversion of zinc by fungi that are symbiotic with the trees via their root network. In other work, XAFS has revealed the transformation of chromate and selenate ions inside the nucleus and cell walls of some plants.

The surfaces of soil particles are active sites of chemical reaction. A flake of clay a few micrometers across can harbor numerous distinct species of a contaminant, each of which can undergo different reactions. Metal oxide surfaces--such as the iron rust studied by Satish Myneni of the Earth Sciences Division--are important reactants in soils and sediments; bright light at wavelengths produced by the ALS is an unequaled tool for studying these compounds.

Recent surveys of MES researchers have identified over a dozen separate fields of study in which fundamental discoveries have recently been made or are soon expected. Already most of the nation's synchrotron beamlines that can be applied to MES are fully subscribed--in some cases badly oversubscribed. The growing discipline needs more facilities, and proposals have been made for construction of new facilities dedicated to MES at the ALS and elsewhere.

"The trademark of MES is complexity," says Shuh. "It's clear that for a multidisciplinary science of such fundamental importance and far-reaching practical implications, the near-term potential for valuable research will be limited only by the tools that can be made available."

Photo: Geraldine Lamble of Earth Sciences and David Shuh of Chemical Sciences represented molecular environmental science as facilitators at the ALS Workshop on Scientific Directions. (XBD9806-01590-01)

Chemical and biological processes at the molecular scale affect the fate of contaminants at many levels of the environment, from surface to root zone to bedrock and below.


Summer Lecture Series

Eric Norman of Nuclear Sciences kicks off a new series of summer lectures featuring prominent researchers at Berkeley Lab. See Page 5 for more information and schedule.


News Digest


Washington News

DOE Official Says Congress Should Fund Genome Project

Despite the entrance of two private companies into the effort, Congress should continue to fund DOE's participation in the Human Genome Project. That was the contention of Ari Patrinos, associate director for DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research, at a hearing of the House Science Subcommittee on Energy and Environment.

The goal of the HGP, begun by DOE and the National Institutes of Health in 1990, is to sequence the 3 billion base-pairs of human DNA and map the location of 20,000 genetic markers by the year 2005. DOE is currently seeking $85.3 million for HGP in FY99, compared with $84.9 million in FY98. The entire project is expected to cost $3 billion.

Critics have claimed that DOE and NIH are taking too long to complete the HGP. Two private firms--The Institute of Genome Research (TIGR), a not-for-profit research institute in Rockville, MD, and Perkin Elmer Corp., a Norwalk, Conn.-based supplier of automated systems for DNA and protein research--claim they can do the job within three years.

Even if these private firms can make good on their claims, Patrinos said Congress should still continue to fund HGP because the TIGR-Perkin Elmer project would only provide a rough "first draft" of the genome and would have many informational gaps. Furthermore, he said, DOE intends to announce by October a new five-year plan that would feature participation by private companies and other countries.

According to Patrinos, HGP hopes to complete mapping prior to the 2005 target. The project is ahead of schedule, he said, thanks to advances in technology and mapping techniques. He credited work by the Joint Genome Institute for helping to accelerate the timetable. Created in 1997 by DOE, JGI represents combined research conducted at Berkeley Lab, Los Alamos, and Livermore.

"Rapid progress came from advances in physical mapping and in technology, and simultaneously from the unexpected pace of disease gene discovery that dramatically demonstrated the value of genome-scale re-search," Patrinos told the Congres-sional panel.

TIGR Chief Executive Craig Venter, who also testified, agreed with Patrinos. "I'm here to tell you not only to not cut the funding for HGP but actually to consider increasing it," Venter said.

Other scientists have questioned the usefulness of the private effort because of the gaps it will leave in sequencing it. Said Maynard Olson, a professor of medicine at the University of Wisconsin,"I am prepared to put my reputation as a scientific prognosticator on the line in predicting that the Perkin Elmer initiative will fail to produce a sequence of the human genome." --Lynn Yarris


Echer Wins Microscopy Award

Photo: Chuck Echer of Material Sciences (top left) has won the Microscopy Society of America's Outstanding Technologist in the Physical Sciences Award, to be presented at the Society's annual meeting in Atlanta July 12-16. Also pictured in front of the Lab's AEM microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy are Vicki Colvin, visiting professor from Rice University (center), and graduate students Arti Agrawal and Steve Robertson. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9806-01556-02)


New Chair for UC Board of Regents

San Diego attorney John G. Davies, a member of the University of California Board of Regents for six years, was elected last Friday to chair the University's 26-member governing board. Frank W. Clark, Jr., a Los Angeles attorney, was named to the position of vice chairman. They will both serve one-year terms beginning on July 1. Davies, 63, succeeds Meredith J. Khachigian as chairman.

Davies currently serves as Gov. Pete Wilson's judicial appointments secretary. He is also a counsel in the law firm of Allen, Matkins, Leck, Gamble & Mallory. Davies was appointed to the Board of Regents by Gov. Wilson in 1992 and his term on the board runs until 2004. He recently chaired the Board's Committee on Health Services.


Hacker Attack

A reminder of the price paid by open research facilities came to researchers at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) earlier this month after a hacker penetrated their computer system. DOE closed the system to outsiders from June 3 to 9 while the lab looked for damage.

"The scary thing was the potential for damage...that could have been incalculable" in terms of data loss and invasion of personnel records, SLAC spokesperson P. A. Moore told reporters.

SLAC security officials believe that the hacker sniffed out a password used by a researcher in a country that prohibits encryption, such as France. A task force has been set up to investigate what can be done to prevent a recurrence. The task will be difficult because SLAC, like Berkeley Lab, is a national lab that encourages information exchanges with other researchers. "Creating barriers goes against the philosophy of an open lab," said Moore.


Year of the Cat

For all the recent publicity about the effort to decipher the human ge-nome, it is the Feline Genome Project that is about to make history. Resear-chers at the National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Genomic Diversity in Frederick, MD, expect to complete a genetic map this year. The news is especially fitting because this is the Chinese Year of the Cat.

The map of the cat genome will feature about 950 markers spread across roughly 3 billion bases. This is far less detailed than the human genome map, which will boast more than 20,000 markers across 3 billion bases. Nonetheless, the cat map should serve as a useful guide to human genetic disorders, since cats and humans share almost 60 inherited diseases. The Feline Genome Project is expected to cost about $3 million.


Berkeley Lab Currents

Published twice a month by the Public Information Department for the employees and retirees of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Ron Kolb, PID department head.

EDITOR: Monica Friedlander, X2248 (495-2248 from outside),
STAFF WRITERS: Paul Preuss, X6249; Lynn Yarris, X5375
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Jon Bashor, X5849; Allan Chen, X4210; Jeffery Kahn X4019
FLEA MARKET / CALENDAR: Jacqueline Noble, X5771 /
Public Information Department, Berkeley Lab, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720 Tel: (510) 486-5771 Fax: (510) 486-6641

Berkeley Lab is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy.


Around the Lab


Martha Krebs Talks About the Future of Energy Research

By Paul Preuss

Midway through a day of talks and tours for the Department of Energy's annual On-Site Review last Tuesday, Martha Krebs, director of the Office of Energy Research, gave an upbeat assessment of DOE's increasingly visible importance to the nation's science and technology research program, and of Berkeley Lab's role in the effort. Krebs made her remarks during a noon-hour public talk in the crowded Bldg. 50 auditorium.

"DOE is now recognized as a science and technology agency," Krebs said, noting that DOE's research budget is the nation's fourth largest after those of the Department of Defense, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and bigger than the National Science Foundation's.

Krebs gave a progress report on the Fiscal Year 1999 budget, still working its way through Congress. The House Appropriations Committee has approved considerably less than was requested for such programs as climate change, the Spallation Neutron Source, and transition costs for the Internatio-nal Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and nothing at all for the Next Generation Internet project. Overall, the Senate Appropriations Committee has been more generous, however, and even the House-approved budget represents a significant increase from last year--a far cry from the situation when Krebs took office, shortly after the fusion budget had been slashed and the Superconducting Supercollider had been killed.

Berkeley Lab people have been helpful in improving the situation. According to Krebs, Berkeley Lab's record of management, for example of components of the U.S. contribution to the Large Hadron Collider, has led Congress to look favorably on funding the U.S. participation in the International LHC effort and other projects.

Krebs also noted the contribution of Lab personnel to the "Science for America's Future" theme and roadmap initiative, intended to lead to a new Strategic Plan for the Office of Energy Research--an initiative supported by Ernest Moniz, Under Secretary of Energy. In developing research themes, Krebs deliberately sought to engage "people not generally asked--the people who perform the science," and she was determined not to be bound by organization charts and budget categories.

In a reference to events at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which she called "an object lesson to all of us," Krebs stressed the importance of integrated safety management and attention to community concerns, saying that Berkeley Lab's response "has been in the right direction."

Krebs spoke in the middle of a busy day, which began Tuesday morning with a 7:30 a.m. working breakfast and continued into the evening. Krebs and officials from DOE Headquarters, the Oakland Operations Office, and the University of California held discussions and heard talks by Director Shank and other Lab leaders, as well as individual scientists, focusing on recent highlights and future strategies. A wide range of topics was touched upon, ranging from physical, biological, and computational sciences to safety issues and Lab organization and operation.

Krebs and other Department of Energy representatives from Washing-ton and Oakland spent the day getting briefed on the Laboratory's highest scientific and operational priorities. Director Charles Shank presented an overview of the state of the Lab and previewed key initiatives. These included the Strategic Simulation Initiative, a scientific supercomputing proposal outlined by Associate Laboratory Director Bill McCurdy; the Advanced Light Source science roadmap, offered by outgoing ALS Director Brian Kincaid; a new Physical Biosciences initiative covering structural and functional ge-nomics and protein crystallography by Division Director Graham Fleming; and an Inertial Fusion Energy initiative with prospective heavy ion research facility by physicist Roger Bangerter.

Other presentations were made by Eva Nogales of Life Sciences on her seminal work in imaging the structure of tubulin; Chris Martin of genome sciences on the sequencing goals of the Joint Genome Institute; Daniel Chemla, Division Director for Materials Sciences and the ALS, on the prospects for the National Center for Electron Microscopy adding a Dynamic Atomic Resolution Microscope to its capabilities; and Jim Siegrist, Division Director for Physics, on scientific collaborations between the physics and nuclear science programs.

Environment, Health and Safety Division Director David McGraw briefed the attendees on the Labora-tory's new Integrated Safety Manage-ment program and on prospects for external regulation of radiation activities by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. And Deputy Director Klaus Berkner reviewed support and infrastructure accomplishments and challenges, including a positive report on the new Administrative Services Department.

Photo: Energy Research Director Martha A. Krebs (right) toured the Advanced Light Source during her visit to Berkeley Lab last week. With her are Deputy Director Pier Oddone (left) and Ari Patrinos of the DOE. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9806-01608)

Martha Krebs displayed a slide of major science stories in the news, many of them about work done at Berkeley Lab. "I like to keep this up to date," she said. "It's time I replaced the discovery of the top quark with the results of the supernova search led by Saul Perlmutter." Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9806-01593-10)


ESNet Rescues House Demonstration of Remote Microscopy

A multi-laboratory demonstration of collaborative tools was held June 17-18 in the Rayburn House Office Building in Washing-ton, D.C. The event drew key members of Congress, including Rep. George Brown (D-Calif.) of the House Science Committee and Rep. Vernon Ehlers (R-Mich.), a nuclear physicist who once worked at Berkeley Lab.

The Lab was represented by Michael O'Keefe of the National Center for Electron Microscopy and Bahram Parvin of the Infor-mation and Computing Sciences Division. The demonstration allowed visitors to interact with scientists conducting remote experiments at two electron microscopes at the Lab.

The demonstrations were almost derailed when the labs learned that the House does not allow outside connections to its network due to security issues. Working frantically, members of the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) staff were able to coordinate a new network connection in just two days, instead of the usual two weeks to two months.

Photo: Rep. George Brown (D-Calif) of the House Science Committee, talked with scientists from Oak Ridge National Lab during a multi-laboratory demonstration held last week in Washington, D.C. Photo by Stewart Loken


Lecture Series Will Feature Some Of the Lab's Top Newsmakers

By Ron Kolb

The search for answers to nature's most perplexing questions--from the particles of deepest space to mankind's tiniest molecules--will be featured in six special talks comprising this year's annual Summer Lecture Series, sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Public Information Department.

Beginning with nuclear scientist Eric Norman's discussion about the study of the elusive neutrino on July 1, the series will include presentations on the current state of research in materials, life and computing sciences. All laboratory employees and visiting guests are invited to the series, which is designed for a non-technical audience.

All one-hour lectures will take place at noon on Wednesdays in the Bldg. 50 auditorium. People are invited to bring their lunches.

Norman's initial talk next Wednes-day is entitled "Neutrino Astronomy: A Whole Lot About Almost Nothing." In addition to describing Berkeley Lab's work in the field, especially at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada, he will address recent news headlines out of Japan which indicated that this ephemeral subatomic particle has mass--a finding that, if true, could alter our view of the universe.

Norman has been on the research staff at Berkeley Lab since 1984 and is now a senior scientist. Prior to that, he spent six years with the University of Washington's Nuclear Physics Labo-ratory after graduating with a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. An East Bay native, he is a graduate of Skyline High School in Oakland.

His research has focused on nuclear astrophysics, neutrino physics and astronomy. He also co-discovered four isotopes. His work has been featured in about 100 refereed publications.

Norman's talk will be preceded by a public premiere of "The Joy of Discovery," a new 10-minute videotape about science at Berkeley Lab.

Uli Dahmen, Director of the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), will give the second lecture on July 8, entitled "Galaxies of Nanocrystals: a Peek at the World of Atomic Structure Through NCEM's Electron Microscopes."

Berkeley Lab's NCEM, a federal user facility in the Materials Sciences Division, includes several microcharacterization instruments that are unique in the world. One of the newest, the One Angsrom Microscope, provides unprecedented resolution in acquiring first-time views of substances like oxygen atoms in oxide superconductors. The "HVEM," after more than 10 years of operation, remains the most powerful high voltage electron microscope in the United States.

Dahmen is a recognized leader in the crystallographic study of micro-structures. Born in Germany, he came to the Lab in 1979 after earning his Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from U.C. Berkeley. In 1988 he became principal investigator for the Materials Sciences Division, and in 1993 he was named director of NCEM.

Horst Simon, Division Director for the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), will speak on July 15 on "Parallel Supercomputing's Golden Age: 1992-2002." NERSC, the nation's largest unclassified computer center, is the first to succeed in the decade-long quest to create a scientific computing production environment featuring massively parallel processing machines.

On July 22, Eva Nogales, a re-searcher in the Life Sciences Division, will discuss "A Family Portrait of Tubulin: the Protein that Built the Tubes that Built the Cell." Nogales recently earned national recognition for her three-dimensional images of the atomic model of tubulin, the first highly-detailed look at one of nature's most essential proteins.

Alex Pines of Materials Sciences will speak on July 29 about "Some Magnetic Moments: Images from Within." A preeminent researcher in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging, Pines recently made headlines with his demonstration that xenon gas can be specially treated to amplify the volume of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signals in "seeing" molecules in solution.

The series will conclude on Aug. 5 with Ronald Krauss, head of Molecular Medicine in the Life Sciences Division, who will address "Diet, Genes and Heart Disease: One Size Doesn't Fit All."

Krauss was instrumental in defining the role of lipoproteins in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of heart disease, and is among the world's experts on the nutritional and genetic influences affecting cholesterol levels in humans.

Photos:Eric Norman and Uli Dahmen (XBD9806-01595)


Personal Alarm Monitor Could Save Your Life

By Monica Friedlander

Dick Johnson, a building manager and technical supervisor at the Ceramic and Glass Shop, had become increasingly concerned about the safety of his workers in recent years. At the Lab for the past ten years, Johnson has seen the size of his staff shrink, with people now often working alone in Bldg. 77 while operating potentially dangerous equipment.

"In my experience in other environments," Johnson said, "people never work on mechanical machinery alone. Safety becomes a very important issue. People often don't work in the presence of others, and I determined it's not safe."

What Johnson had in mind was some kind of device for people to use to alert others in emergency situations, much like the medical alert systems available on the market. He contacted the Lab's Environment, Health and Safety Division, as well as Glenn Skipper, the person responsible for designing electronic security systems such as the Lab's "Proximity" access cards. Johnson, Skipper and Don Van Acker of EH&S met and soon thereafter a solution was in the works.

"Two hours later I put together a design for a wireless personal alarm monitor," Skipper said. "We decided to take a proactive approach when it comes to personal safety."

The device, now being used in the machine shop, consists of a small pendant that can be worn around the neck or clipped to a pocket. The short-range mini radio transmitter has a small red button, which when pressed in an emergency, calls the building's switchboard with a prerecorded voice message.

The battery-powered system works within a range of about 200 feet from a wall-mounted receiver and power supply box, much like an automatic garage door opener.

The Machine Shop currently owns the only personal alarm monitor on the Hill, although Johnson, Skipper, and Van Acker encourage others--especially people working by themselves in remote areas of the Hill or who operate dangerous equipment--to consider the investment.

The device has yet to be used, Johnson is happy to report, but its very existence has brought him much peace of mind. "I feel so much better," he said. "It's good safety practice."

The personal alarm monitor does not come cheap, and each department would be responsible for the costs incurred: $400 for the device, plus one day of labor to have it installed. The monitor also needs an analog phone (as opposed to the digital phones currently used at the Lab), which means telephone services would need to install a new line.

"So we have an additional phone bill every month," Johnson said. "But it's well worth knowing we may save somebody's life."

For more information on setting up a personal alarm monitor, contact Glenn Skipper at X6125.

Photo: Dick Johnson holds the personal alarm monitor now used in the Lab's Ceramic and Glass Shop. The receiver and powerpack can be seen in the back. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9806-01579)


Bulletin Board


Runaround XXI

The date for the 21st Annual Run-around has been set for Friday, Oct. 16. That should give all aspiring athletes (amateur or otherwise) plenty of time to get in shape for the event. The course will follow the same route as last year, starting at noon at the Firehouse and finishing at the cafeteria. Glenn T. Seaborg will be the official starter. Watch future issues of Currents for more updates. To volunteer, contact Steve Derenzo at or Michael Goldstein at Michael_ Gold-stein


Hall of Science Summer of Fun

The Lawrence Hall of Science has a full schedule of activities for the entire family planned for this summer. From its ongoing whales exhibit, which runs through Aug. 30, to Rock N' Roll Voices, papermaking class, Ice Cream Day, and "Summer Science Fundays" held every Wednesday, children and adults alike can join in the fun and learning.

Museum programs also feature a biology lab, a weekend computer lab, and the Holt Planetarium, which has shows scheduled every day throughout the summer.

A Fourth of July Bay Cruise is also planned, with tickets on sale now. For more information on these and other events, call LHS at 642-5132.


New FedEx Box at Bldg. 50

A new Federal Express drop box with a 3:45 p.m. pick-up time has been placed in front of the Bldg. 50 auditorium. To send materials from the Laboratory, employees must complete a FedEx waybill. Instructions can be found at

All letters and packages must be placed into the collection box before 3:45 p.m., Monday through Friday. The waybill must include the division's FedEx account number and an LBNL project ID. Letters and packages may still be dropped off at Shipping in Bldg. 69 from 7 a.m. and 3 p.m. for same day shipping.

For further information contact Chuck Horton at X5084.


New Seaborg Center in Minneapolis

Photo: Dr. Glenn Seaborg, Berkeley Lab's associate director-at-large, participated in groundbreaking ceremonies for the new Glenn T. Seaborg Science Complex at Northern Michigan University earlier this month. Area schoolchildren assisted Dr. Seaborg in turning the first spades for the new complex, to be completed by the summer of 2001.

Glen Seaborg Science Complex


Fish Ranch Road to Remain Open During Construction

There may be a light at the end of the tunnel for commuters mired in seemingly endless traffic delays on Fish Ranch Road in the aftermath of last winter's storm damage. The popular two-lane road which leads up to Highway 24 has had only one lane open to traffic since a slide opened approximately 1,000 feet south of Grizzly Peak Blvd.

According to a spokesperson for the Contra Costa County Public Works, a contractor (Gordon N. Ball of Alamo) has been hired to do the extensive repair work, with construction expected to be completed by the end of July. Meanwhile, a retaining wall anchored by cables has been put in place to support the slide. One lane will remain open for traffic through the construction site, with no road closures anticipated.

For the past few months the county has been investigating the nature of the slide, negotiating with the Federal Highway Administration for disaster funding, and seeking construction bids, the spokesperson said. The repairs will cost $640,000. Stay tuned.


Employee Activities Association Seeks Nominations for Advisory Panel

Nominations are being accepted for three openings on the Employee Activities Association Advisory Panel. These three-year positions are open to all Lab employees. Openings are available for one Recreational Groups representative, one Cultural Groups representative and one member at large. The responsibilities of the Advisory Panel are to advise management and the activities coordinator about association activities, monitor the distribution of funds, monitor activities, provide long-term planning, and recommend new programs and activities.

To nominate yourself contact Michael Goldstein (MS: 938A, fax X6477, e-mail, the current activities coordinator, by July 24. Please indicate the opening you are interested in and include a brief statement with information about yourself, why you are interested in serving on the panel, and a list of committees or panels you have served on.

Lab-wide elections will be held during the first two weeks in August.

For more information see the EAA web page at


Summer Student Picnic

All summer students and their mentors are invited to attend the Laboratory's sixth annual summer student picnic, to be held from 11:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. on Friday, July 24, on the patio area between Bldgs. 2 and 6.

Organized by members of the Afri-can American Employees Association, the picnic is held to thank all students and mentors for their contributions to the Laboratory and to welcome all newcomers who are here for the summer.

The Lab-sponsored event is made possible by contributions from the African American Employees Associ-ation and the Employee Activities Association, as well as by the generosity of employees who volunteer their time and cooking skills. For more information contact Mark Covington at X6305.


Rush Service From Onsite Courier

The Facilities Department is providing the Lab with rush courier service with pick-up and delivery both on- and off-site. Transportation can deliver up to 2,000 pounds anywhere in the Bay Area or in central or northern California. On-site materials will be delivered within one hour. For off-site service, a driver is available during normal business hours for same-day pick up and delivery, with rush service depending on destination. Rush service is also available from IDS Courier.

To request a pick up, call Peggy Patterson at X5404.


Softball Results


Currents Online

The full text and photographs of Currents are also published on the World Wide Web. You can find a link to Currents on the Lab's home page ( under the heading "Publications." The site allows users to do searches of past articles. To set up your computer to access the web, call the Mac and PC Support Group at X6858.


Calendar of Events

Calendar of Events at Berkeley Lab


The Berkeley Lab Calendar is published biweekly here on the World Wide Web and in Currents by the Public Information Department. Employees can list a meeting, class, or event in the Calendar by using this submission form. The deadline for submissions is 5 p.m. on Monday in the week that Currents is published.

In addition to the events listed below, Berkeley Lab's Washington, D.C. Projects office is hosting a Science and Technology Seminars series. 

Scientific Conferences


June 26 - July 12

General Interest


Noon, Bldg. 26-109


Eric Norman on Neutrino Astronomy
Noon, Bldg. 50 auditorium


Independence Day Holiday


Noon, Bldg. 26-109


Uli Dahmen on Microscopy
Noon, Bldg. 50 auditorium

General membership meeting
Noon, lower cafeteria


"What in the World is XML?"
11-12:30, 70A-3377 conf. room
General membership meeting
Noon, Bldg. 90-1099

7:30-4:30, Bldg. 90-1099

Items for the calendars may be sent via e-mail to currents_calendar@, faxed to X6641 or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the July 10 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, July 6.

Seminars & Lectures



"Overview of High Energy Nuclear Physics Support at NERSC"
will be presented by Craig Tull of NERSC.
2 p.m., Bldg. 50A-5132


"Heterogeneous Biofilm Modeling:
Stochastic Simulations of Surface Growth"
will be presented by Natalya Eliashberg.
Noon, 338 Koshland Hall, UCB


July EH&S Class Schedule

Pre-registration is required for all courses except Introduction to Environment, Health & Safety. To pre-register, send name, employee ID number, extension, course title, EH&S course code, and date of course to EH&S: via the web (, e-mail (, mail (EH&S Training, 90-0026, room 16C), fax (X4805) or phone (X7366).



Flea Market

Autos / Supplies

`82 SEARAY, 22.5 ft, 260 Merc outdrive, family ski/camp boat, sleeps 4, head, galley, 310 hrs, delta canvas, vhf, depth sounder, trim tabs, very good condition, incl Trailrite tandem axle trailer, $9500/b.o., Bob, (925) 376-2211

`84 TOYOTA Camry, a/t, am/fm/ cass, exc eng, newly rebuilt transmission, good battery, power windows, locks, power steering, runs but needs brake work, $600, Adhana, 763-2098

`85 SAAB 900, 4 dr, 109K mi, 5 spd, new tires, very good cond, one owner, $2650, Doug, X4567

`85 CIVIC S Hatchback, ac, am/fm/ cass, 5 spd, body ok, interior good, mech great: new tires, starter, alt, battery & brakes, runs strong, 166K on well maintained, 1.5L eng, $1600 firm, Craig, 547-0697

`87 HONDA Civic 4 dr sedan, 160K mi, auto, am/fm/cass, body ok, very clean, runs great, $2200/b.o. Yoonho, X5305, 232-2751

`88 SUZUKI Katana 600cc, blue & white, rebuilt `92 engine, new sprockets & chain, garaged since `94, $2500/b.o. Mike, X6182

`89 OLDSMOBILE, Cutlass, automatic, red, two dr, ac/am/fm cass, exc cond, 68K+ mi, $5,100, Reney, 653-6964

`90 CHEVROLET Celebrity, 4 dr wgn, 6 cyl 3.2L, at, ac, radio/tape, new tires, brakes, very good cond, $2900, Klaus, 559-1031

`91 HONDA Civic LX Sedan, V4, 4 dr, 38K mi, orig owner, serviced quarterly, dark blue w/ light blue interior, equipped w/ a/t, pwr/s, pwr windows & locks, rear window defogger, electric trunk release, tilt wheel, cruise control, stereo am/fm, anti-lock brakes, $7,500, Yen, X4652

`92 FORD Taurus, metallic blue, V6 3.8L, power windows, locks, seat, mirrors, steering, ac, air bag, antilock brakes, leather seats, 82K mi, $5,000, Yaron, X4473

`95 SUZUKI Sidekick JLX, 4 dr, 4 -wd, automatic, a/c, power windows & locks, factory alarm, am/fm cassette, champagne exterior, gray interior, 57K mi, alloy wheels & good tires, exc cond, $9,950 firm, Doris, X5568, (925) 827-4269

`96 VW Golf GTI, 2 doors, ac, new tires, 29K mi, ABS, black, VW warranty, sunroof, dual air bags, power steering, stereo, one owner, exc cond, $14,000, Martin, X4800

`97 SATURN, SWI, 30K mi (freeway), wagon, a/t, abs+ t/c, p/s, a/c, rear defroster/wiper, dual a/b, side beams, stereo r/c w/ 4 speakers, documented regular service, l yr of manufacturer warranty, $13,950/b.o. (Kelley's blue book), Moshe, (415) 459-6477


BERKELEY, 2 + bdrm house for scientist & wife already in Berkeley, possibly hills/residential areas around LBNL, Albany, Kensington, Montclair, Rockridge, Piedmont, year lease, from 8/98, Massimo, X7695, 525-8753

EL CERRITO hills, 1 bdrm in-law apt, close to Del Norte Bart, 20 minutes to LBNL, suitable for one quiet nonsmoker, sunny, clean, lovely garden view, private entrance, patio, galley kitchen, shared laundry & backyard, no pets, year lease, rent incl util & cable, avail August, $825/mo, Maryann, X4364

MONTCLAIR, room in house w/ grad students, 2 balconies, backyard, deck, fireplace, washer/dryer, canyon view, 2 car garage, storage/guest room, close to Sibley, Huckleberry & Redwood parks, Montclair Village, off Thornhill Drive, 15-20 min to LBNL, avail 8/98, $550/mo, Ken, X4527, 338-0231


BASS GUITAR, `81 Rickenbacker 4001, rare burgundy finish, exc shape, looks & plays great, hard shell case, $700/b.o. Gary, (925) 454-9713

BIKE, road, ladies, spotless, runs & looks perfect, very nice & reliable, sportive model, $150/b.o., Christa & Harrie, 653-5863

DINING ROOM SET, elegant, w/ glass table top, $400, Lisa, 849-9737

FUTON, oak, black, designer cover, almost unused, $195 ($480 new); pine futon, woven design cover, w/ 2 cushions, $140; TV and VCR stand, wood, black, glass door, sturdy, $35 ($200 new); bamboo armchair, $25; blender, $10; halogen torchiere lamp, adjustable arm, $15; electric knife, $5, Diana, 526-2741

GARAGE SALE, multi-family, June 27-28, 8 am-4 pm, 856 Mariners Pt, Rodeo, refrigerator, bicycles, glassware, jewelry, children's clothes, toys, videos, exercise equipment, dryer, stereo, speakers, garden tools, carpet cleaner, dj lights, knick knacks, Rosa, X4766

GOLF CLUBS and bag, 2-sw graphite s-shaft, good cond, bag has stand, 1, 3 & 5 wood, original cost, $900, asking $400/b.o., Ron, X5029

KITCHEN RANGE HOOD, white, brand new, $70; car seat (for ages 3 & over), $10; HP LaserJet 5L, (like new, needs work on paper feeding), $80, Chao, X5718, 526-0624, evenings

LAPTOP, Compaq Armada 7330T, 150Mhz Intel Pentium Processor w/ mmx technology, 256kb level 2 cache, 16mb ram, hd: 2.1gb, 12.1 inch active-matrix display, 16 bit color at 1024x768 resolution, 2mb edo dram standard, 1.44mb floppy disk drive, integrated 16-bit stereo sound, cd-rom 20x, pci 33.6K bps data/fax modem card, pc card slots: two type II or one type III, Lithium ion battery (3 hrs battery life), internal ac adapter, all the software you want (just ask), 3 yr warranty, 2 mo of life, $1400, Matteo, X5604, 548-9829

MODEM, external 33.6 kbs, fax w/ voice, speaker, & mic jacks, cost, $80 in 8/97, sell for $50/b.o, Art, X4785

MOVING SALE, king size bed, $150; microwave, $80; chest w/ 5 drawers, $40, 2 single beds, $60; 4 chairs, $40; sewing machine, $60; NEC monitor, MulstiSync XE15, 15" for PC or Mac, 1 yr, $200/b.o., Gunther, X5600, 654-6203

NORDICTRACK Ski 3000 w/ computer, almost new, $250; Nordictrack sit up machine w/ weights, almost new, $125, Doug, X2277

PRINTER, Hewlett Packard Deskjet 520, monochrome, 3 ppm, 300-600 dpi, works great, $100, Christa, X7770, 653-5863

STEREO Cabinet, light-colored wood, 2'Wx4'H, 3 adjustable shelves, $50, Steve, X6941

TELEVISION, Quasar 19", $50; VCR w/ remote, $75; Proctor-Silex 12 cup automatic coffee maker, almost new, $15; Global Village 14.4 Faxmodem for Mac, $15, Evan, X7349

TIRES, Michelin Energy MXV4, top-rated all season, 195/65HR15, 250 miles (changed wheels), five or four at $85 ea ($126 retail), Brent, X5614, Krista, X7523

WASHER/GAS DRYER, $350 pair; Iron, $3; 2 end tables, $20; toaster, $2; 96 CD revolving holder, $7; microwave, $30; white patio table, $25, Grace, X5061

WOODEN CRIB w/ mattress & accessories, perfect cond, $125, Dick, X6204, 528-0112


FURNISHED 2+ bdrm house/condo in nice area near LBNL for visiting scientist & wife, 9/1/98-4/30/99, Bill, X5910

HOUSING, Berkeley area, 1-2 bdrm apt or house for self, wife & 2 indoor cats, long term rental only, Alex, X4581, (530) 75-9-1189

HOUSING for visiting scientist and family from France, already in Bay Area since 8/97, searching for a 3 bdrm house in El Cerrito, Albany or Kensington for 2 yrs from 7/98 or 8/98, Thiebaut, X7030, 233-4042

HOUSING, lease or lease/option on fixer-upper, Carol, X5060

HOUSING, 3 or 4 bdrm apt or house in East Bay for visiting professor from Spain & his family, approx period, 8/1-9/30, e-mail:

HOUSING for visiting scholar, room in a house or apt, in areas around LBNL, 7/18-8/2, Alyssa, X5958

HOUSING for new lab employee, 2 bdrm house in hills/residential areas around LBNL, North Oakland to El Cerrito areas, 1 year lease from 7/98, non-smoker, no pets, Julie, X2420


HAWAII, 20 mi below Hilo on Big Island, convenient to Univ of Hawaii campus, unfurn, 2 bdrm, 2 bth house for rent by week ($150) or by MO ($450); $55,000 to buy, nr schools, shopping, rec ctr, 1 mi to ocean bluff, Marlene, X6005

TAHOE KEYS at South Lake Tahoe, house, 3 bdrm, 2 1/2 bth, on the water, fenced yard, quiet area close to many attractions, great views of water & mountains, $150/night, 2 night min, Bob, (925) 376-2211

Real Estate

FOR SALE 1600 sq ft home in Lafayette, 3 bdrm, 2 bth, master bdrm w/ private bth, separate vanity, walk-in closet, living rm w/ lg windows, wood stove on raised brick hearth, family rm w/ window wall & French doors, dining rm w/ 2 window walls, built in oak buffet & views of huge private deck w/ hot tub, trees and hills, new gas stove in kitchen w/ oak cabinets throughout, utility rm for washer/dryer, built in sink & oak cabinets, 2 car garage, easy care landscaped frt yard, off St. Mary's Road w/ nearby bike trail access, Burton Valley Elementary, Stanley Intermediate and Campolindo High Schools, for sale by owner after 22 years, all it needs is new carpeting, $355,000, Charlie, X4658, 283-6111


SOFABED, dbl bed, light green pattern on white, free, Ed, 526-1260

FLEA MARKET items may be e-mailed to fleamarket@, faxed to X6641, or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the July 10 issue is Thursday, July 2.



Currents/The View and the Communications Department Staff

Published once a month by the Communications Department for the employees and retirees of Berkeley Lab.

Reid Edwards, Public Affairs Department head
Ron Kolb, Communications Department head

Pamela Patterson, 486-4045,
Associate editor
Lyn Hunter, 486-4698,

Dan Krotz, 486-4019
Paul Preuss, 486-6249
Lynn Yarris, 486-5375

Ucilia Wang, 495-2402
Allan Chen, 486-4210
David Gilbert, (925) 296-5643

Caitlin Youngquist, 486-4020
Creative Services Office

Berkeley Lab
Communications Department
MS 65, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720
(510) 486-5771
Fax: (510) 486-6641

Berkeley Lab is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Flea Market is now online at


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