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ABOUT THE WEB DOCUMENT AND CREDITS
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Last modified 23-July-97
Thank you very much, Darleane [Hoffman], for a very fine introduction. I've been asked to talk about the first three decades of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. I notice they left the "Lawrence" off of here somehow. [Referring to the logo plaque on the front of the lectern.] In the course of that I will spill over a little bit in order to finish some of the things I'm talking about and go a little bit beyond the first three decades.
|Ernest Lawrence about the time he came to the University of California at Berkeley, August 1931.|
I'm going to use a large number of slides because I didn't know what to omit. So I'm going to go pretty fast in some of the slides. I thought I would rather say a little bit about a lot of of things than a lot about a few things and then leave out a number of things, so I'm going to have to move pretty fast.
I'm going to begin with a picture of Ernest Lawrence taken in the earliest days. He came to Berkeley in 1928 and invented the Cyclotron in 1929. Actually, I became . . . as Darleane has indicated, I did my undergraduate work at UCLA and I became acquainted with the work here at Berkeley in a course in atomic physics that I took from a professor called John Adams, who was a descendent of the second President of the United States, and he told us about the invention of the cyclotron at Berkeley, the discovery of artificial radioactivity early in 1934.
I took this course after I had graduated from UCLA in February 1934, and he told us about the discovery of the neutron and of deuterium in 1932, and so forth. This increased my resolve to go to Berkeley and do my graduate work.Here are some of the notes taken from my notebook as I took that course in 1934.
|Notes from an atomic physics course taught by Dr. Adams at UCLA in 1934.||Report on Ernest O. Lawrence's experiments, dated 4/6/34|
I arrived in Berkeley in August of 1934. At that time Ernest was working with the 27-inch cyclotron, which was producing 3 million-electron-volt protons.
|Five inch cyclotron held by Glenn Seaborg.||27-inch cyclotron in 1932.|
|Left to right: Jack Livingood, Frank Exner, M.S. Livingston (in front), David Sloan, Ernest O. Lawrence, Milton G. White, Wesley Coates, L. Jackson Laslett, and Commander T. Lucci.|
And here he built the 27-inch cyclotron, of which I show you a picture here, that produced first protons and then deuterons in 1933. Here is a picture taken in 1933 of a number of the key people working with him at that time. I won't stop to read off the names, I'll let you do that. This 27-inch cyclotron was producing 3 MeV deuterons by the time I came here in 1934, and then 4 MeV deuterons the next year, then 5 MeV deuterons the next year, and by 1937, 6 MeV deuterons. Then he built the 37-inch cyclotron using the same magnet. This was a magnet with about 70 tons of iron in it, and that produced 8 MeV deuterons.
|37-inch cyclotron. Berkeley, California.||Deuteron-deuteron neutron source; Room 118, Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (UCB).||East Hall, University of California, Berkeley (UCB), where work with fast neutrons took place.|
|Glenn Seaborg in the East Hall on the UC Berkeley campus in 1937 with neutron scattering apparatus.|
|Chemistry buildings, old Radiation Laboratory, Crocker Laboratory, etc., 1940's.||Demolition of Old Radiation Laboratory, 1959.|
|Cooksey and Lawrence at the 60-inch cyclotron.||60-inch cyclotron, circa 1939, shows beam.||John and Ernest Lawrence at control panel of 60-inch cyclotron shortly after it began operating.|
Here is Lawrence and his assistant Don Cooksey at the 60-inch cyclotron which began to operate in 1939 and produced 16 MeV deuterons, and had a magnet weighing about 200 tons. Here is a picture of the deuteron beam coming out of that 60-inch cyclotron, 16 MeV deuterons. Here is a picture of Ernest Lawrence with his brother John, who joined the Laboratory in 1937 to do the pioneering work in nuclear medicine. Really, he was the instigator, the first person to do significant research in nuclear medicine using the radioactive isotopes produced in the Berkeley cyclotrons.
Here's a picture of the group, with all of their names there, at the 60-inch cyclotron. More or less the key personnel at that time in 1939.
|Early Radiation Laboratory staff framed by the magnet for 60-inch cyclotron in 1939||60-inch cyclotron group: Cooksey, Corson, Ernest O. Lawrence, Thornton, Backus, Salisbury, Luis Alvarez, and Edwin McMillan, 1939.|
|Ernest O. Lawrence Nobel Award announcement on blackboard|
On November 9, 1939, word came that Ernest Lawrence had received the Nobel Prize for his invention of the cyclotron. There's an interesting story there. Darleane had mentioned that Helen Griggs was serving as Ernest Lawrence's secretary, and she got the word. He was over at the Claremont tennis court playing tennis. She phoned there trying to get in touch with him, but they said they couldn't bother him. "Yes you can bother him. I want to give him this news." So she was the one who gave him the news on his winning the Nobel Prize. This is self explanatory (referring to the blackboard announcement). This is the celebration that they had there.
|1934 findings of Enrico Fermi and co-workers|
|Periodic Table before World War II|
|Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, Fritz Strassmann--1936 or 1937, EkaRe, EkaOs, EkaIr and EkaAu||Hahn & Strassmann, December 1938||Discovery of Element 93|
|Edwin M. McMillan||Philip Abelson|
|Glenn T. Seaborg at Geiger-Muller counter and amplifier, 1941.||Joe Kennedy at 9237 San Antonio Avenue, South Gate, Christmas, 1940||Art Wahl at Washington University|
|Helen L. Griggs and Glenn T. Seaborg, Christmas 1941 in San Francisco|
|Naming -- 92 Uranium (U) Uranus, 93 Neptunium (Np) Neptune, 94 Plutonium (Pu) Pluto|
|The Chemical Properties of Elements 94 and 93|
|Glenn T. Seaborg and astronomer Clyde W. Tombaugh, discoverer of the planet Pluto, at a press conference at the Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico||25th Anniversary of the discovery of plutonium with (from left to right) Glenn Seaborg, Arthur C. Wahl and Edwin McMillan.|
|Glenn T. Seaborg in 307 Gilman Hall.|
|Demonstration of fission of Pu-239 by Kennedy, Seaborg, Segrè, and Wahl on March 28, 1941|
|Glenn T. Seaborg and Emilio Segrè presenting plutonium sample to Smithsonian Institution|
|Aerial View of the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) in 1940.||Crocker Lab - exterior of building housing Seaborg's lab, 1941.||Exterior view of the old Radiation Laboratory|
|Lawrence party group, Yamato Hotel, San Francisco, approximately 1938: R. Sagane, Ernest O. Lawrence, H. Walke, H. Newton, J. Cork, J. Laslett, R. Thorton, E.M. McMillan, G. Paxton, P. Aebersold, L. Emo, B. Kinsey, V. Voorhis, Lyman, Richardson, Yasaki, Snell, Livingood, Cooksey, Kurie.||LBL party at DiBiasi's, 860 San Pablo Avenue, Albany, California. Clockwise around the table: Ernest O. Lawrence, Betty (Mrs. Charlton) Cooksey, Vannevar Bush, Molly (Mrs. Ernest) Lawrence, Alfred Loomis, Dorothy Axelrod, Helen Griggs, Charlton Cooksey, David Sloan, and S. Mrozowski.|
I thought I should say something special about Luis Alvarez because he was an extraordinary scientist at this time. He joined the Laboratory in 1936.
|Alvarez with personally built electronics and BF-3 ionization chamber||Glenn T. Seaborg journal excerpt, April 15, 1938. Discovery of electron capture decay by Luis W. Alvarez.||Four future presidents of the American Physical Society. Left to right: Alvarez, Robert Oppenheimer, Willy Fowler and Bob Serber (1938)|
Here's a picture of him with a neutron counter taken in 1938. He is responsible for a large number of discoveries.Here is a note from my journal of April 15, 1938. I've kept a journal since January 1, 1927. Here is my description of a paper I had just read in which he discovered decay by electron capture. He is the discoverer of that method of decay. Here is a picture taken in 1938 of Luis Alvarez with Robert Oppenheimer, Willie Fowler of Cal Tech, and Bob Serber of the Radiation Lab at that time.
|Alvarez receives the Nobel Prize for Physics from King Gustav VI with Princess Christina looking on (1968).||Asteroid Impact research team (1969). Left to right: Helen Michel, Frank Asaro, Walter Alvarez and Luis Alvarez.|
|Radiocarbon dating. Kamen and Ruben.|
|Sam Ruben at work in the Rat House, University of California, Berkeley (UCB).||Martin Kamen.||Melvin Calvin doing early photosynthesis in the old Radiation Laboratory, circa 1948.|
|Radioistopes discovered at LBL commonly used in nuclear medicine|
Here's a number of radioisotopes discovered at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory commonly used in nuclear medicine. I won't stop there, but I was involved in the discovery of a number of these. In fact the isotopes that I was involved in the discovery of, used in nuclear medicine, are used some 10 million times a year now in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In fact, one of them saved my mother's life, iodine-131. She had a fatal hyperthyroid condition and she was diagnosed and treated with iodine-131 as were George Bush and Barbara Bush who, as you know, are suffering from Graves' disease.
|Joseph Hamilton radiosodium experiment|
|Radionuclides used in medicine in the discovery of which Seaborg was involved.||Glenn T. Seaborg and J.J. Livingood walking in front of Sather Gate, University of California, Berkeley as they are mailing iodine-131 paper.|
Here is a summary of those radionuclides used in medicine in the discovery of which I was involved. Here we have a picture of me with Jack Livingood -- I worked with him on a number of these -- on Telegraph Avenue, there's Sather Gate, on our way to the post office mailing the manuscript announcing the discovery of iodine-131. This is a picture taken by an itinerant photographer. He handed me a card and I sent him 50 cents. They don't do much of that anymore.
|Glenn T. Seaborg photographed with two iodine and technetium papers.|
|Chemical elements discovered at Berkeley, California or by Berkeley teams.||Element 43, technetium (Tc). Perrier and Emilio Segrè.||Element 85, astatine. Corson, et al.|
|Atomic Weight, Name and Symbol chart for ten transuranium elements of which GTS participated in the discovery.||Glenn T. Seaborg and Edwin M. McMillan in front of the Periodic Table, soon after the announcement of the receipt of their winning the 1951 Nobel Prize in chemistry.|
Here are the elements in whose discovery I have been involved. Ten of them, maybe eleven. I'm going to say a little bit about another element, 110, in a few minutes. I've already covered plutonium. For this -- actually for the chemistry of the transuranium elements -- Ed McMillan and I received the 1951 Nobel Prize in chemistry. By the way, that's the earliest Nobel Prize of any living Nobel Prize winner in any field. I was 39 years old at the time, so I've been a Nobel Prize winner most of my life. Here I am receiving the Nobel Prize on December 10, 1951 from King Gustav VI of Sweden. Being of Swedish parentage, I met an awful lot of relatives when I was in Sweden.
|The King of Sweden giving the Nobel Prize to Glenn T. Seaborg.||U-233, 1941-1942.||The 25th anniversary of U-233. Dr. John Gofman, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg and Dr. Raymond Stoughton in Room 303 of Gilman Hall, University of California, Berkeley (UCB)|
|LBL Building 4||LBL Building 5|
|The four codiscoverers of berkelium (Bk, element 97) and californium (Cf, element 98) in Glenn T. Seaborg's office as part of LBL's 25th anniversary of the discovery. Left to right: Kenneth Street, Jr., Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, and Albert Ghiorso.||Codiscoverers of einsteinium (Es, element 99, 1952) and fermium (Fm, element 100, 1953) at symposium commemorating the 25th anniversary of their discovery held at the LBL. Left to right (front row): Louise Smith, Sherman Fried, Gary Higgins. Left to right (back row): Albert Ghiorso, Rod Spence, GTS, Paul Fields and John Huizenga.||The codiscoverers of mendelevium at the LBL, on the 25th anniversary of discovery. Left to right: Gregory R. Choppin, GTS, Bernard G. Harvey, and Albert Ghiorso.|
|Mendelevium (Md) party at Larry Blake's: Nelson Garden, Al Ghiorso, Bernard Rossi, Earl Hyde and others at buffet table.||The codiscoverers of nobelium (No, element 102) in the HILAC building, LBL in 1958:Albert Ghiorso, Torbjorn Sikkeland, and John R. Walton. Glenn T. Seaborg is absent.|
Then we went on to the discovery of element 101 in March 1955, and here we are on the 25th anniversary of element 101. The team, Greg Choppin and Bernie Harvey, myself, and Al Ghiorso. Stan Thompson was also a member of that discovery team but he had died in 1976. This photograph was taken on the 25th anniversary in March of 1980. We celebrated that with a sort of a party at the restaurant, and I just wanted to show here the picture of Nelson Garden who did so much for the radiation protection of our group, and Bernie Rossi who was the operator of the cyclotron, as well as Al Ghiorso.
Here are the discoverers of element 102 in 1958, Ghiorso, Torbjorn Sikkeland, and John Walton. I'm a co-discoverer also, but I wasn't there. By that time I had been put up to be Chancellor and I wasn't in the laboratory when this picture was taken.
|The codiscoverers of lawrencium (Lr, element 103), HILAC building, LBL, 1961:Torbjorn Sikkeland, Albert Ghiorso, Almon E. 'Bud' Larsh, Robert M. Latimer.|
Now we come to 103. There we have Torbjorn Sikkeland, Ghiorso, and Almon Larsh and Robert Latimer. This was in 1961.
Now we come to elements 104 and 105, which were discovered in 1969 and 1970. Here is a picture of the discoverers. I was visiting from Washington at that time with them and so we have Matti Nurmia, Jim Harris, Kari Eskola, myself, and Pirkko Eskola, and Al Ghiorso.
|The codiscoverers of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104) and hahnium (Ha, element 105) with GTS at the HILAC building, LBL. Left to right: Matti Nurmia, James Harris, Kari Eskola, GTS, Pirkko Eskola and Albert Ghiorso.||The codiscoverers of element 106, seaborgium (Sg) at the Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (HILAC) building of LBL at the time of discovery in 1974. From left to right: Matti Nurmia, Jose R. Alonso, Albert Ghiorso, E. Kenneth Hulet, Carol T. Alonso, Ronald W. Lougheed, GTS, and J. Michael Nitschke.|
|Glenn T. Seaborg pointing to seaborgium (element 106) on the Periodic Table of the Elements, 1995.|
I just wanted to show this because Andy Sessler is in it, and he's going to talk here on Wednesday. He was the director of the Lab in the 70s, and I had the honor as chairman of the AEC, with presenting him with the Lawrence Award in 1970. Here's Mike May, who was the Director of the Livermore Lab, one of the recipients.
|Lawrence Award: Sessler, Bair, Cobble, May, Hendrie.|
|Reactions for element 110.|
In 1940, there was a meeting at Berkeley with Lawrence and Arthur Compton, Vannevar Bush, Jim Conant, Karl Compton, and Alfred Loomis, that led to the funding for the 184-inch cyclotron.
|Meeting in the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) in March 1940 to discuss the 184-inch cyclotron. Left to right: Ernest O. Lawrence, Arthur H. Compton, Vannevar Bush, James B. Conant, Karl T. Compton, and Alfred Loomis.||184-inch cyclotron facility on October 23, 1941.|
|Ernest O. Lawrence, Glenn T. Seaborg, and J. Robert Oppenheimer in early 1946 at the controls to the magnet of the 184-inch cyclotron, which was being converted from its wartime use to its original purpose as a cyclotron.|
|Lawrence and the staff shown with the 184-inch magnet.||Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California view towards south. Visible in this picture is the 184-inch cyclotron building.|
Here is the whole gang, I won't try to identify them, at about the time when it began to operate. Here is the building in which it was housed.
I might just mention that Luis Alvarez also invented and built a linear accelerator for 32 MeV protons, and this is the scribbling on their blackboard when they first got a beam in 1947.
|Search for the first beam from the proton linear accelerator (10/16/47). Alvarez's 8:30 p.m. blackboard calculation 'proving' that geometry must be changed and that the "machine would not work", with an added note that at 2:40 a.m., six hours later, they achieved the beam.|
|Overall view of Bevatron.||Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (LRL) from Indian Rock Drive. Visible in this picture are: Building 70, Building 51, the Bevatron, Administration Building.|
|Surrounding Edward Lofgren (center) are discoverers of the anti-proton, (left to right) Emilio Segrè, Clyde Wiegand, Owen Chamberlain and Thomas Ypsilantis.||Seaborg, Weigand, Segrè, Steiner, McMillan Nobel Prize celebration.|
Here is the heavy ion linear accelerator of which Ghiorso became in charge. It produced heavy ions of 10 MeV per nucleon and began to operate in late 1956 and early 1957. Here's the building in which it was housed. The building is still there.
|SuperHILAC under construction.||Aerial view of Building 71.|
|Aerial view of LBL.|
Then in 1971 Al Ghiorso had the idea of using the HILAC as an injector for the Bevatron to make into a Bevalac so it could accelerate heavy ions to the multi-BeV energy range. That came into operation a few years later. Here's a picture of the line going down from the HILAC to the Bevatron to produce the Bevalac.
|Diagram of High-energy Heavy Ion Facility (Bevalac).||Bevalac: Beam transport line construction, Bevatron end.|
Then in 1989 the 184-inch cyclotron building was converted to house the Advanced Light Source, which came into operation a few years later and which later speakers I'm sure will say something about.
|Construction of Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL.||Flow chart for radioactive beam acceleration.|
Then Mike Nitschke had an idea, and I can only just tell you this, which was to produce radioactive ions by bombarding a heavy target with high energy protons which in turn could be accelerated and would give you a much broader range for transmutations, because you could have nuclei that had more neutrons or less neutrons than the stable isotopes, and so forth. This was Mike Nitschke's idea, but with his death this work is not being carried on here. Unfortunate. Here's a picture of Mike taken about that time. Here is a chart of all of these radioactive isotopes that could be produced and accelerated in such a machine.
|J. Michael (Mike) Nitschke with his detection apparatus at the Hilac in the 1980s.||Projected Radioactive Beam intensities at the IsoSpin Laboratory (after acceleration to 10 MeV/u) from a Uranium Carbide target, 1 mol/cm² thick.|
I'm going to end with a number of remarks about people. In November 1955 we had a visit from the famous Otto Hahn, the discoverer of nuclear fission, for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1944.
|Ghiorso, Seaborg and Otto Hahn, University of California, Berkeley.||Seven Nobel Laureates of LBL, University of California, Berkeley (UCB), with historic 37-inch cyclotron at the Lawrence Hall of Science. Pictured Owen Chamberlain, Edwin McMillan, Emilio Segrè, Melvin Calvin, Donald Glaser, Luis Alvarez, and Glenn T. Seaborg on March 7, 1969.|
Here I am, Hahn, Ghiorso, and I. In 1969, on one of my visits to Berkeley, we took a picture of all the Nobel Prize winners. By that time there were 7. Chamberlain and Segrè, I mentioned their winning the Nobel Prize for the antiproton in 1959; McMillan and I for the chemistry of the transuranium elements in 1951; Calvin for his work on photosynthesis in 1961; and Glaser for his work on the bubble chamber in, I think, 1960; and Alvarez for his work on the hydrogen bubble chamber and its use in elementary particle physics and so forth, Nobel Prize in 1968.
Now I'm going to mention at random a few interesting things. In 1962, March 23, Charter Day, President John Kennedy visited the Radiation Laboratory. Helen and I flew back with him on Air Force One, and here we are entering building 70A. Here's Governor Pat Brown, along with Kennedy and me, and Ed McMillan.
|Glenn T. Seaborg and John F. Kennedy at LBL.||Edwin M. McMillan, Edward Teller, Glenn T. Seaborg, John F. Kennedy and Pat Brown visit LBL.|
|President John F. Kennedy (JFK) visiting AEC-supported Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (LRL) on March 23, 1963. Picture taken in front of Building 70A at LRL in Berkeley, California. Left to right: Dr. Norris Bradbury, Dr. John S. Foster, Dr. Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg, President John F. Kennedy, Dr. Edward Teller, Robert McNamara (Secretary of Defense), and Dr. Harold Brown.|
|Frank Asaro, Iz Perlman, and Frank Stevens||Isadore Perlman, Margaret and Bernard Harvey, Jack Hollander in 1953.||Louise and John Rasmussen and Marian Diamond at Glenn T. Seaborg's Nuclear Chemistry Division party in 1958.|
|Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Street, Mr. and Mrs. David Templeton on September 4, 1960.||Rose McFarland, Ken Moody, and Glenn T. Seaborg in control room of 88-inch cyclotron on October 1, 1981.|
Here is just an example of a couple of my graduate students when I came back from Washington. Ken Moody, Rose McFarland with me in the control room of the 88-inch cyclotron.
|LBL Nuclear Chemistry Program Committee. John Rasmussen, Albert Ghiorso, Joseph Cerny, Kenneth Street, Norman Edelstein, Frank Asaro, Earl Hyde, Arthur Poskanzer, David Shirley, GTS, Frank Stephens, Richard Diamond, David Hendrie, Jack Hollander, Bernard Harvey, David Templeton, Sheila Saxby, Luciano Moretto, and Norman Glendenning.|
|50th anniversary of plutonium. Glenn T. Seaborg and his students on February 23, 1991.|
|Periodic table showing the heavy elements as members of an actinide series. Glenn T. Seaborg formulated this arrangement in 1944 and it was first published in Chemical and Engineering News in December 1945.||Modern periodic table of the elements projected to element 118. Lanthanide (La) and actinide (Ac) series shown. With elements 106 (Sg), 107 (Ns), 108 (Hs), 109 (Mt), 110, 111, and 112 discovered.|
So here we are today. All the way up to the unnamed elements 110, 111, and 112. Seaborgium is under tungsten, it's an eka-tungsten. As I like to say, I'm looking forward . . . Darleane just showed me a copy of an article on the chemistry of seaborgium that they're just sending in. It has isotopes that are sufficiently long lived so one can do chemistry. I'm looking forward to the day when we're going to be talking about seaborgous and seaborgic and seaborgate ions. Finally, here is a periodic table to end periodic tables. Here I've gone beyond element 118 all the way on up to the next noble gas, it would be a noble liquid.
|Futuristic periodic table of the elements projected to element 168. With lanthanide (La), actinide (Ac) and superactinide series shown. With elements 106 (Sg), 107 (Ns), 108 (Hs), 109 (Mt), 110, 111 and 112 discovered.|
That brings me to the end of my talk. Thank you very much.
Last modified 23-July-97
LBNL Library Home page: http://www-library.lbl.gov
Technical and Electronic Information Department Home page: http://www.lbl.gov/ICSD/TEID
Image Database Home Page
There were many steps that went into the production of the online version of Dr. Seaborg's lecture, An Early History of LBNL. First, the lecture was videotaped on August 26, 1996. The videotaped version of the lecture was then transcribed and broken up into sections to put into html format. The next step was adding the most important part of the website; the photographs. The slides that Dr. Seaborg has been using in his lecture for years were scanned and stored in LBNL's Image Library. From there the images were then linked to this document to bring the wonderful stories of a man who has had his finger on the pulse of science for 60 years, to life.
If you click on the photos you will get a larger version of the photo. If you click on the captions, you will get the photo credits for those photos that were not taken by a Berkeley Lab photographer.
Acknowledgement for the production of this online document goes to the following people and groups who put in their time, energy, and ideas to it's completion.
An honorable mention to these people whose help was greatly appreciated:
Gizella Kapus, Rachel Starbuck, Yulah Sun, Sherrill Whyte, and Kristin Balder-Froid.