Remediation and long term containment or monitoring (e.g. monitored natural attenuation) strategies require innovative measurement and monitoring tools in order to track performance and/or verify containment measures. The ERSP accepts applications for research in this area that describe the applicability of innovative approaches to subsurface measurement or monitoring techniques to the problem of delineating contaminant transport processes in the subsurface and/or evaluating the potential for the long-term success of in situ remediation concepts. Potential areas of interest include non-invasive techniques to delineate subsurface structure, track migration of contaminants in the subsurface, detect groundwater flow and evaluate the rate and progression of biogeochemical processes. Research examining in-well or subsurface techniques for quantifying the concentration and speciation of contaminants, the extent of microbial activity and rates of biogeochemical processes are also of interest to the ERSP. All research applications should emphasize development of new techniques relevant to the field setting that address crucial measurement needs in support of conceptual/computational models of the subsurface transport processes or in situ remediation. Coordination with an ERSP field project is encouraged. The intent is to develop novel measurement and monitoring techniques under situations where direct relevance to conceptual and/or computational model development in a field setting can be demonstrated. The current emphasis of the program is on development of techniques to measure/monitor processes affecting the mobility of contaminant metals and radionuclides in the subsurface.